Veröffentlichungen von Prof. Dr. Tim Weitzel

2019

Hund, A., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
The Creation of Digital Innovation: Internal Reorganization, External Networks and Organizational Knowledge
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 79th Academy of Management Conference, Boston, MA, USA

View Abstract
Digital innovation already disrupted numerous industries and organizations are challenged to align their innovation efforts with the new reality of a digitized environment. We examine how internal reorganization and the external network of an organization are related to organizational knowledge and the eventual creation of digital innovation. To develop digital innovation, firms tap a variety of heterogeneous backgrounds to exploit the ease with which different knowledge fields can be accessed and recombined in a digitized environment. Therefore, the actors involved in the development process come from different sources from within and without the firm as the inclusion of digital technology challenges previously non-digital organizational innovation logics. We develop a conceptual model, which takes the characteristics of digital innovation into account.

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Digitalisierung und Zukunft der Arbeit - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2019
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., Wirth, J., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2019 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) , , https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-019-00335-0

View Abstract
From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How do Users Respond to Technostress? An Empirical Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Coping
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, USA

View Abstract
As technostress costs organizations financial resources and threatens the well-being, it is essential for users as well as companies to manage technostress. To do so, users cope proactive by removing or reducing techno-stressors or reactive by restoring users' emotional state. However, literature is limited by explaining what factors lead to proactive and reactive coping in a short-term technostress situation. The present paper addresses these shortcomings by investigating in how techno-stressors and emotional exhaustion influences proactive and reactive coping. Results based on 110 users show that users respond to techno-stressors in a proactive way, whereas users reactively respond to emotional exhaustion. In addition, proactive coping is stronger affected by techno-stressors, and reactive coping is stronger affected by emotional exhaustion. Thereby, we contribute to technostress and coping literature by demonstrating how users respond in short-term technostress situation and highlight the importance of time in the present context.

2018

Brown, M., Quesenberry, J., Niederman, F., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
New Approaches to Optimizing the Digital Workplace: Special Issue Editorial
MIS Quarterly Executive 17:4, p. ix-xxiii

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Oehlhorn, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
A Social Comparison Perspective to Study Negative Effects of Telework
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, CA, USA

View Abstract
Telework is indisputably important for establishing a positive work-life-balance for employees. Teleworkers are less stressed and more satisfied by work implying turnover intentions that are below half of those of regular office workers. However, recent practical indications suggest that there is also a dark side of telework, meaning that telework has adverse effects for office workers, who, among others, develop feelings of envy. To study these adverse effects for office workers, we use social comparison theory and suggest that a disparity of telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors. In developing our research model, we posit that office workers become envy, dissatisfied with their job, develop turnover intentions and perform worse. An empirical study with 269 employees working in one organization with telework arrangements confirms the hypothesized relationships. Therewith, this study contributes to telework research by providing an interpersonal perspective on telework and revealing that there is a dark side of telework for office workers, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from developing adverse emotions and behaviors.

Hund, A., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Organizational Reconfiguration and Digital Innovation Success: A Review and Novel Perspectives
Proceedings of the JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, CA, USA
(Research in Progress)

Mattke, J., Hund, A., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Will the real Value of Blockchain Please Stand Up? Lessons Learned from Multiple Blockchain Projects
Proceedings of the MISQE Special Issue Workshop, San Francisco
(Research in Progress)

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Müller, L., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Typology of User Resistance Behavior: A Study Explaining Why Individuals Resist Using Bitcoin
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), San Francisco

View Abstract
Bitcoin could revolutionize the system of payments, yet most individuals do not use Bitcoin as a means of payment. As the success of Bitcoin as a means of payment depends upon a high number of individuals using Bitcoin, this study examines why individuals resist Bitcoin as a means of payment. We draw on the status quo bias perspective and take a configurational approach, using fuzzy set qualitative comparison analysis (fsQCA). The analysis reveals a typology of four types of resistant users, who resist Bitcoin as a means of payment: the regret driven resistant user, the uncertainty driven resistant user, the transition cost driven resistant user and the cost driven resistant user. We contribute to resistance research and Bitcoin research by providing a typology of resistant users and identifying equifinal configurations of influencing factors leading to individual's resistance to Bitcoin as a means of payment.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Employer Branding - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Digitalisierung der Personalgewinnung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Weinert, C., and Wirth, J. (2018)
Social Recruiting und Active Sourcing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2018 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2018
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Job Seekers' Acceptance of Job Recommender Systems: Results of an Empirical Study
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, Hawaii
Nominated for Best Paper

View Abstract
Based on UTAUT2 and the importance of trust to explain user behavior in relation to recommender systems, we focus on job recommender systems by developing and validating a job recommender system acceptance model. The results of our empirical, survey-based study with 440 job seekers indicate that beside performance expectancy and habit, trust is among the three most important determinants and it is especially relevant for women, passive job seekers and those without experience in using job recommender systems. The paper extends general trust and recommender system research by revealing three moderators for the trust and intention relationship. It contextualizes the UTAUT2 by incorporating trust as an antecedent of a consumer's intention to use and by revealing three moderating effects for this relationship. Hence, it is the basis for further studies investigating the acceptance of job recommender system, which has rather been neglected by prior research.

2017

Mattke, J., Müller, L., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Engagement with Social Ads: Explaining the Influence of Herding in Social Media Advertising
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
Social media uses social ads that are enriched with social media likes (SMLs). Yet, existing research on advertising cannot explain how SMLs influence individuals' engagement with social ads. We build upon herding literature and the theory of the strengths of ties and explain how the observation of social ads enriched with SMLs influences individuals' intention to engage with the social ad. This paper explains the effect 1) of the pure number of SMLs of a social ad and 2) the effect of SMLs from strongly or weakly tied friends on individuals' engagement with social ads. We thereby contribute to a better understanding why individuals click on social ads and provide practical implications for social media marketing' campaigns.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Understanding Privacy Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal through Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Nominated for the Most Innovative Short Paper Award

View Abstract
Individuals differ in their motivation to protect their privacy. When facing privacy threats, individuals evaluate the threat (threat appraisal) and the extent they can cope with it (coping appraisal) which, in turn, influences their protection motivation. Hence, better understanding both appraisals helps us to better understand an important part of privacy behavior. We introduce the concept of mindfulness to explain privacy threat and coping appraisals. Mindfulness is hypothesized to increase both, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. A quantitative study is to be carried out to examine our hypotheses. We expect to contribute to the privacy literature by demonstrating how different levels of threat appraisal and coping appraisal are formed.

Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Personality and Technostress: Theorizing the Influence of IT Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Even though IT use has numerous benefits for users and organizations, such as improved performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience IT use as a source of stress, i.e. technostress. Since such technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads individuals to perceive it. Based on psychology research suggesting user personality as a cause of stress perceptions, this research uses the Theory of Personality to investigate how user personality influences technostress. In developing our research model, we focus on the dynamic, context-specific trait IT mindfulness and on the degree to which this trait determines the perception of technostress. This study contributes to technostress research by revealing that user personality in general and IT mindfulness in particular are determinants of technostress, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from perceiving technostress.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Analyzing and managing IT-induced work system changes
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Teaching Case)

View Abstract
This teaching case explores the challenges of changing a work system by implementing an information system (IS). The case describes the approach implemented by "The Bank", a financial service provider, when it implemented a new financial and banking IS "SysOne", and thus fundamentally changed its work systems. The case is a real business scenario, which bases on case study research conducted by our research team and it adapts recent theoretical advances in the IS implementation literature. Using this teaching case should encourage students to discuss IS implementations from a general "system thinking" rather than a "tool thinking" perspective. An IS implementation is not just a new tool, it is a change of employees' work systems. This teaching case should guide students to extend the efforts implemented to guide employees when implementing an IS beyond the technology to focus on the major IT-induced work system changes and thereby enable successful technochange.

Müller, L., Mattke, J., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
The Curse of Mobile Marketing: A Mixed Methods Study on Individuals' Switch to Mobile Ad Blockers
Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, Korea

View Abstract
Mobile marketing investment continues to rise steadily even though online publishers have not realized the desired returns, due to increased use of mobile ad blockers. In this study, we take a mixed methods approach, embracing qualitative, quantitative and configurational approaches, to understand why individuals switch to using mobile ad blockers. We draw on the pull-push-mooring model to evaluate what configurations of pull, push and mooring factors influence individuals' decision to switch to using mobile ad blockers, identifying four distinct configurations of influencing factors resulting in the intention to switch. Furthermore, we specify the unequal effects of influencing factors and validate the quality of our results. Our research deepens the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of switching to mobile ad blockers and provides valuable implications to online publishers facing the challenge of rising mobile ad blocker use.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Employer Branding und Personalmarketing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Active Sourcing und Social Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Women in IT - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2017)
Bewerbung der Zukunft - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2017 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2017
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41303-016-0029-7

View Abstract
In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Dürr, S., Wagner, H., Weitzel, T., and Beimborn, D. (2017)
Navigating Digital Innovation - The Complementary Effect of Organizational and Knowledge Recombination
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , St. Gallen, CH

2016

Fischbach, K., Overhage, S., Staake, T., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Einleitung
in Benker, T.; Jürck, C.; Wolf, M. (Hrsg.): Geschäftsprozessorientierte Systementwicklung. Von der Unternehmensarchitektur zum IT-System. Springer, Berlin 2016, S. 1-7.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Is Information Technology Solely to Blame? The Influence of Work-home Conflict Dimensions on Work Exhaustion
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Using information technology (IT) can blur the boundaries between work and private life and contribute to an IT-based work-home conflict (WHC). Organizations and governments treat IT usage as the main source of WHC and have implemented laws and policies to restrict access to IT to reduce WHC. In this paper, we investigate the effect of IT usage-related and work-based dimensions of WHC: time-, strain-, and behavior-based WHC. Understanding the dimensions of WHC can help organizations and governments move beyond IS usage restrictions to identify and prevent the negative consequences of each dimension for employees, such as work exhaustion. We distinguish IT- from work-based dimensions and theorize their effect on work exhaustion. The results of a study of 542 employees show that the IT-based dimension of WHC only indirectly influences work exhaustion, whereas time- and strain-based WHC contribute significantly and directly to work exhaustion. Implications for research and practice are suggested.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The Appropriateness of Blended Learning across the Phases of Technology Use
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Healthcare professionals are characterized compared to other professionals through their continuous need of training due to constantly implementing complex technologies, which have a direct impact on patients well-being. In this context blended learning has been already successfully used. Nevertheless, less is known regarding the appropriateness of blended learning over the phases of healthcare technology. Therefore, we conducted a semi-structured, explorative survey, using a mixed method research design and interviewed 16 healthcare professionals of three Chinese hospitals. We focus in our survey on the appropriateness of traditional and online learning methods across different phases of technology use. Based on our results we conclude three propositions regarding blended learning. The propositions indicate that the appropriateness of traditional and online learning methods differs according to the phases of technology use, the healthcare professionals user role and the complexity of the healthcare technology used.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The influence of change-related stress on user resistance when an enterprise system is implemented: a longitudinal field study
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
When an enterprise system is implemented employees often respond with user resistance behavior. As employees work environment are changed significantly they also experience stress during an implementation. However, neither technostress nor user resistance research have focused on the stress related to the change induced by an enterprise system implementation. Hence, it is not known how change-related stress results in user resistance behavior and thus prevents organizations from managing the implementation process sufficiently. Therefore, we provide a research model that theorizes the influence of change characteristics, such as change complexity, switching costs and switching benefits, on change-related work overload and role ambiguity as change stressors, which in turn determines employees change-induced exhaustion. When this exhaustion is perceived as a threat user resistance behavior will occur. Using a longitudinal field study with 273 employees during an enterprise system implementation we provide empirical evidence for the proposed model.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Employer Branding und Personalmarketing - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Mobile Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Best Practices und 'Big Failures' in der Rekrutierung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Bewerbung der Zukunft - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Techniksprung in der Rekrutierung - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Oehlhorn, C., Wirth, J., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2016)
Active Sourcing und Social Recruiting - Ausgewählte Ergebnisse der Recruiting Trends 2016 und der Bewerbungspraxis 2016
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2016.1

View Abstract
When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

2015

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
What happens when users are not able to perform coping mechanisms? An investigation of the habituation process
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
In some situations individuals are unable to perform coping mechanisms against technostress because of low controllability and resources. Thereby, they are repeatedly exposed to technology-related stimuli named IT-stressors, which should result in several user responses such as emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and poor performance. However, in these situations individuals might habituate to the IT-stressor such that the user responses are mitigated. We assume that the influence of the IT-stressor on emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and performance is moderated by this habituation effect. Therefore, we propose an experimental setting in which individuals are repeatedly exposed to a computer breakdown to which they might get used to over time. During the experiment, we draw on self-reporting and objective methods to capture user responses after each exposure to the IT-stressor, in order to analyze the change of the user responses across time. Thereby, we expect the results to contribute to technostress and coping literature.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Implicit Attitudes: An Investigation of Implicit Attitudes and Their Influences on Behavioral Intentions
Proceedings of the 14th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied antecedence of user behavior. Most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes. These unconscious automatic associations individuals make between an attitude object and its favorable or unfavorable evaluation are not taken into consideration in IS acceptance and usage literature. Hence, the present research zooms into the attitude construct by distinguishing between explicit and implicit attitudes and investigates their influences on behavioral intentions. Based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) and a survey, we conducted a study that captures explicit and implicit attitudes, to evaluate the research model. The research reveals that explicit and implicit attitudes are distinct constructs and that not only explicit but also implicit attitudes have an effect on behavioral intention towards using the IS.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
A work system theory perspective on user satisfaction: Using multiple case studies to propose a work system success model
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
In this paper we use multiple case studies and apply work system theory to them to better understand user satisfaction in each case. Based on the IS success model and the three case studies we conclude that beside the classic investigated objects information and technology as proposed by the IS success model also additional component of a work system influence user satisfaction. In particular we identified that work practices and also the relation between work practices, information and technologies have an influence on user satisfaction. We also revealed products/services and customers as potential drivers of user satisfaction and analyzed individual, environmental, strategical, and infrastructure characteristics as important contextual factors. Therefore, we suggest a work system success model for an extended understanding of user satisfaction that should better guide organizations when designing and implementing information systems.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Successfully Implementing Enterprise Content Management: Lessons Learnt from a Financial Service Provider
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Fort Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Information overload and content chaos are major challenges for organizations, as they have to deal with a high amount of unstructured content. With enterprise content management (ECM) systems, a technological solution is developed to deal with such challenges; however, these systems can only provide value to an organization if they are implemented in the context of an ECM strategy. In this paper the implementation of a new ECM strategy at a financial service provider is described to illustrate how organizations can on the one side design an ECM strategy that reduces information overload and content chaos and on the other side implement it successfully. The four keys for successfully implementing ECM based on the lessons learnt derived are an ECM team leading the change process, the acceptance of users by meeting the organizations business needs, a metadata taxonomy enabling dynamic content delivery, and an effective change management from the outset.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Controlling der Rekrutierung: Erhebung von Kennzahlen entlang des Recruiting-Prozesses
in Praxishandbuch Controlling, W. Becker and P. Ulrich (eds.), Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, pp. 1-14

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
On the Untapped Value of IT in HRM - a Literature Review
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) 38:2, , http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol38/iss1/2

View Abstract
The "war for talent" is still on. Annually conducted surveys have indicated for years that one third of all organizations are unable to fill vacant job positions with suitable candidates. Responding to these and other challenges, human resource management (HRM) is expected to transform itself. General opinion holds that the HRM transformation has just begun and that the potential of IT in HRM is not yet fully exploited. Examining the value potential of IT in HRM, existing IS research predominately studies the impact of IT on HRM. We contribute by examining the reverse impact in three steps. First, we use Thompson's theory of organizations in action to examine the expected impact of the HRM transformation on IT ("to-be" situation). Second, we use Kohli and Grover's IT value typology and review 20 years of the publication history ("as-is" situation). Finally, we relate expectations to actual review findings. We find that the HRM transformation should lead to a major shift in technology type used in organizations. However, this shift is not recognized yet, which is why our literature review reveals considerable unaddressed value potential of IT in HRM. We finish the paper by outlining IS research avenues in the context of HRM.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Drivers and Consequences of Frustration When Using Social Networking Services: A Quantitative Analysis of Facebook Users
Proceedings of the 21th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Puerto Rico

View Abstract
In this study drivers and consequences of frustration, a negative emotion when using information technology (IT), are theorized and empirically evaluated in a social networking services (SNS) usage context. For example, when users are frustrated by using SNS they might stop using these services. As the number of users mainly determines the value of SNS this paper focuses on frustration while using SNS. It is assumed that both technology and social aspects of SNS usage determine whether users feel frustrated. Empirical evidence can be provided that perceived enjoyment, envy, information overload, and social overload are antecedents of the sentiment frustration. It is also argued that frustration while using SNS will lead to dissatisfaction and discontinued usage. Based on the empirical evidence for this cohesion the paper discusses its theoretical contribution in terms of that discontinuous usage behavior is a coping strategy applied by users to minimize the frustration sentiment.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.17

View Abstract
This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Extending Moore's Exhaustion Model: Including Further Dimensions of Burnout and Investigating Their Influence on Turnover Intention Among IT Professionals
Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Newport Beach, California USA

View Abstract
This research focuses on burnout as a driver of turnover intention amongst IT professionals. We extend Moore's exhaustion model by including further dimensions of burnout into the model, namely depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. The effect of stressors on these dimensions and the original dimension of emotional exhaustion is investigated, as is their influence on turnover intention among IT professional. Results based on a data sample of 154 IT professionals show that not only emotional exhaustion but also depersonalization leads to turnover intention. This outcome cannot be neglected when trying to reduce turnover intention in an organization in order to maintain competitive advantages. Moreover, while the stressors suggested by Moore influence emotional exhaustion, they only slightly explain the dimensions of depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. This indicates that these two dimensions of burnout are caused by additional factors, which represents a research gap worth investigating in future research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Wirth, J., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Bewerbungspraxis 2015 - Eine empirische Studie mit 7.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Weitzel, T., Wirth, J., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2015 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weinert, C., Wirth, J., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2015)
Recruiting Trends 2015 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland, sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Finanzdienstleistung, Health Care und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Eymann, T., Kundisch, D., Wehrmann, A., Legner, C., Schell, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Are Requirements for Graduates of Master and PhD Programs in Business and Information Systems Engineering Changing?
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (6:6), p. 367-376, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11576-014-0442-2

Schlosser, F., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Wagner, H. (2015)
Achieving Social Alignment between Business and IT - An Empirical Evaluation of the Efficacy of IT Governance Mechanisms
Journal of Information Technology 30, 119-135, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.2

View Abstract
How can firms improve the degree of social alignment between their business and IT units? Many years of research have shown the importance of business-IT alignment and its various facets, yet research on the efficacy of IT governance mechanisms to improve business-IT alignment is scarce. In this paper, we develop a model of social alignment at an operational level that considers the degree of social capital between an organization's business and IT units, IT personnel's business understanding, and a set of formal and informal IT governance mechanisms that drive the creation of social alignment and business value. Using survey data from 132 U.S. banks, we show that social alignment is driven to varying degrees by a broad variety of IT governance mechanisms ranging from top management support and IT representation on the executive board to joint IT planning and IS trainings, regular meeting cycles and liaison units. Our research contributes substantially to the practical demand on business-IT alignment research for an effective toolkit of IT governance mechanisms.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/isj.12068

View Abstract
Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Blended Learning Success: Cultural and Learning Style Impacts
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Osnabrück

View Abstract
Corporate education in international organizations faces a lot of challenges which are hoped to be addressed by using blended learning concepts. However, the heterogeneity of an international workforce in terms of culture and learning style opposes this objective. Therefore, this research-in-progress paper focuses on cultural and learning style impacts on learning success when using blended learning in organizations. Based on first theoretical ideas of a blended learning success model the impact of culture and learning style on learning outcome is theorized and analyzed using an empirical study conducted with 81 employees of an international organization. The results reveal that national culture has an impact on blended learning success and therefore a cultural sensitive design of blended learning environments is necessary. The results are the basis for further research to develop a blended learning success model including cultural and learning style aspects as it is described in the paper.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2843824.2843827

View Abstract
In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2014.27

View Abstract
Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Contagious Power of Innovativeness: How Different Corporate Partners Contribute to a Firm's Knowledge
International Journal of Innovation Management (19:4), article 1550042, http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S1363919615500425

View Abstract
As innovation is often created in networks, a company's business partners influence its innovative outcome. Although many studies investigate innovation networks as a means to explore and exploit external knowledge, virtually no research has focused on the characteristics of external partners - in particular their innovativeness. This study considers axial and lateral corporate partners and investigates the differential impact of the partners' innovativeness on a company's knowledge stocks (market, technological, organizational, process, and product knowledge). Drawing on the literature on inter-organizational networks and using survey data from the manufacturing industry, the results extend theory by revealing that not only relationships with partners but also their properties - partner innovativeness - are important for a company's knowledge stock. In essence our results suggest that the innovativeness of a firm's axial and lateral partners positively yet diversely influences its various knowledge stocks.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2014.3

View Abstract
As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

2014

Eymann, T., Kundisch, D., Wehrmann, A., Legner, C., Schell, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Ändern sich die beruflichen Anforderungen an Masterabsolventen und Doktoranden der Wirtschaftsinformatik?
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (56:6), p. 403-413

Wirth, J., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Using a work system theory perspective to review 25 years of technology acceptance research: proposing a research agenda
Proceedings of the 2014 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
IT projects still often fail and do not generate the expected value due to the lack of user acceptance. From the point of view of the work system theory (WST) this might be grounded in the fact that in current technology acceptance research IT is treated as a technical artifact and not as part of a work system. Therefore, we set up a literature review to reflect 25 years of research since the introduction of its most prominent model to discuss in how far a work system theory perspective on technology acceptance research might help to explore possible research gaps. Our results reveal that the technology acceptance model (TAM) is still the predominant model in technology acceptance research and therefore the classic components of a work system namely participants, information and technology and the relation between these components have been researched very well. However, we found out that work practices and also the relation between work practices, participants, information and IT in relation to technology acceptance, which can have an influence on technology acceptance as well, have rather been neglected in current research. We also identified products/services and customers as potential drivers of user acceptance. We derive six propositions that can be further theorized and evaluated by technology acceptance research. Consequently, we conclude that a WST perspective on technology acceptance research is appropriate to discuss the acceptance of IT, which is part of a work system in which participants produce products or services for customers.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why are they grumbling about my new system? Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence of employee grumbling as a user resistance behavior
Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Blended Learning - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Savannah (GA)

View Abstract
The aim of this paper is to identify measurements of learning efficiency and learning effectiveness of blended learning and to analyze drivers of learning effectiveness and learning efficiency in learning environments of corporate education. Therefore a literature review of the AIS Electronic Library is done. With a single term search including "learning efficiency", "learning effectiveness" and "blended learning" 14 papers are identified. Regarding learning efficiency, less research is available so that only few measurements are available and no drivers are identified In contrary, learning effectiveness is in research focus: 10 measurement indicators and 16 drivers are analyzed. Few of these findings concentrate on blended learning environment in corporate education. In conclusion, an evaluation framework including learning effectiveness and efficiency for blended learning environments of corporate education is desirable. This paper discusses opportunities for future search based on the state-of-art knowledge published by the AIS Electronic Library.

Zolper, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The effect of social network structures at the business/IT interface on IT application change effectiveness
Journal of Information Technology (29:2), p.148-169, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2014.6

View Abstract
The challenge of managing the relationship between a firm's business and IT in order to derive business value from IT is an important topic on researchers' and practitioners' agendas. The focus of most related research and management actions has been on the top management or project management levels. However, conflicts frequently arise within the line organization when applications are extended, enhanced, maintained, or otherwise changed operationally outside software development projects. This study focuses on the impact of relationships at the application-change level and strives to identify and explain favorable social structures for effective business/IT dialog at the operational level. We collected data in seven comprehensive case studies, including 88 interviews and corresponding surveys, and applied social network analysis to show that three social structures at the implementation level influence the degree to which IT applications are maintained and enhanced in line with business requirements: (1) interface actors connecting business and IT, (2) the relationships between interface actors and the corresponding unit, and (3) the relationships between interface actors and other employees in their unit. In three cases, less favorable structures are revealed that correspond to low application change effectiveness and software applications that do not meet business requirements. The other cases benefit from favorable social structures and thus enhance fulfillment of business requirements and result in higher IT business value. This paper contributes to IS research by helping to explain why companies may not provide favorable IT services despite favorable relationships at the top management level and successful application development projects.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Stars Matter - How FLOSS Developers' Reputation Affects the Attraction of New Developers
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Singapore

View Abstract
The attraction of new developers is a key challenge for initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). While previous evaluations consider status gains and competence evaluations to be key drivers for novices' joining behavior, it is unclear how FLOSS developers' relationships with others affect the attraction of new developers. In this research, we look at FLOSS developers' relationships in terms of positive evaluations given by others. Using this perspective, we examine how FLOSS developers' reputation among members within and beyond the project community affects their projects' ability to attract new developers. We draw on Social Resource Theory (SRT) and hypothesize that developers with a high reputation among others enjoy high visibility and credibility, which in turn helps their projects to attract new members. Finally, we propose an evaluation approach for our research model that examines the reputation and project behavior of more than 1,000 FLOSS developers on a longitudinal base.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Does teleworking negatively influence IT professionals? An empirical analysis of IT personnel's telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Singapore

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking in the IT industry, companies like Yahoo!, HP, or Best Buy have stopped their telework programs, which indicates that there might also be some negative side effects in this type of work. In regard to this, our research focuses on one particular negative side of teleworking by focusing on teleworking-induced stress of IT professionals. We theorize that teleworking-induced stressors influence IT personnel's psychological and behavioral strain in the form of exhaustion due to teleworking and discontinuous intention towards teleworking. Results of an empirical online survey with 57 IT professionals validate these dependencies, which gives us the grounds to identify work overload, work-home conflict, information underload, and social isolation as influence factors of exhaustion due to teleworking. Further results reveal that discontinuous intentions towards teleworking is directly influenced by social isolation and exhaustion due to teleworking, whereas the influence of work overload is mediated by exhaustion due to teleworking. Work overload due to telework has the strongest effect on exhaustion due to teleworking, which in turn is the strongest influence factor on the discontinuous intention towards teleworking.

Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., and Eckhardt, A. (2014)
Recruiting Trends 2014 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-07-2013-0079

View Abstract
Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weinert, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2014)
Recruiting Trends 2014 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Health Care, IT und Maschinenbau
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Kraft, B. (2014)
Bewerbungspraxis 2014 - Eine empirische Studie mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
How Social Capital among IT and Business Units Drives Operational Alignment and IT Business Value
Journal of Management Information Systems (31:1), p. 241-272, http://www.jmis-web.org/articles/1193

View Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that IT and business resources need to be well aligned to achieve organizational goals. Yet, year after year, chief information officers (CIOs) still name business-IT alignment a key challenge for IT executives. While alignment research has matured, we still lack a sound theoretical foundation for alignment. Transcending the predominantly strategic executive level focus, we develop a model of 'operational alignment' and IT business value that combines a social perspective of IT and business linkage with a view of interaction between business and IT at non-strategic levels, such as in daily business operations involving regular staff. Drawing on social capital theory to explain how alignment affects organizational performance, we examine why common suggestions like "communicate more" are insufficient to strengthen alignment and disclose how social capital between IT and business units drives alignment and ultimately IT business value. Empirical data from 136 firms confirms the profound impact of operational business-IT alignment, composed of social capital and business understanding of IT, on IT flexibility, IT utilization, and organizational performance. The results show that social capital theory is a useful theoretical foundation for understanding how business IT alignment works. The findings suggest that operational alignment is at least as important as strategic alignment for IT service quality, that managers need to focus on operational aspects of alignment beyond communication by fostering knowledge, trust and respect, and that IT utilization and flexibility are appropriate intermediate goals for business-IT alignment governance.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Four 'W's of Face-To-Face - Suggesting an Enriched Perspective on Nearshoring Relationship Management
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Singapore

Illig, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why IS after all? An Explorative Analysis of Professionals' Letters of Study Motivation
Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
While the selection of majors in Information Systems (IS) is widely discussed, the context of IS in further education lacks attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the motivational factors of individuals who intent to study IS, although they have already graduated in another degree program. Based on an explorative analysis of 84 letters of motivation of applicants applying for a further education degree program in IS, we identify determinants of an individual's motivation to study IS after all. Based on that, we conclude that extrinsic motivations such as expected career enhancement are more important than in other contexts such as undergraduate study paths.

2013

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
Recruiting Trends 2013 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Zolper, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
When the river leaves its bed: analyzing deviations between planned and actual interaction structures in IT change processes
Journal of Information Technology (18:4), p. 333-353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2013.23

View Abstract
There is ample evidence of deviations between the actual and planned interaction structures between a firm's IT department and business units. Such deviations can hinder senior managers from governing their IT organizations effectively because they do not know how work really gets done. This paper develops an explanation for why actual structures differ from planned structures. Understanding this phenomenon is indispensable for managers to govern the real organization, to uphold compliance with important standards (e.g., ITIL, COBIT), to decide whether the formal or the actual organization is more effective, and, finally, to identify management actions that support the optimal structure. To develop this understanding, we analyze the interaction structures at the interface between firms' business units and IT units in four rich cases, using data from 56 interviews and 47 questionnaires, and applying qualitative methods and social network analysis, which give us deep insights into planned and actual interaction among employees. We test two different explanations for deviations of actual from planned interaction structures and find that boundary-spanning theory provides the dominant explanation for such deviations: Inclined to span the business/IT boundary most effectively, the actors involved deviate from planned structures especially when other structures offer better boundary-spanning potential, which is influenced primarily by cross-domain knowledge. In addition, relationships also play an important role. On the positive side, relationships provide opportunities for such deviations, while on the negative side, a conflict-laden relationship might hinder deviations even if they were advantageous.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The influence of coping mechanisms on technostress
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milan, Italy

View Abstract
This paper uses a laboratory experiment with perceptual and objective measures from skin conductance response to analyze the influence of different coping strategies on behavioral and psychological strain in the context of techostress. Thereby, behavioral strain is objectively observed in terms of task fulfillment and psychological strain by skin conductance response in four treatment groups, classified by receiving different coping strategies. Initial results of our research reveal that users with no-coping are strained more than those how utilized coping strategies during stressful situations. This also takes place subsequently to the IT-stressor, as the slope of the skin conductance level is negative when applying coping strategies. However, the first results of the SCR indicate that coping strategies have no influence on behavioral strain such as end-user performance. Furthermore, results of a MANOVA outline that the psychological strain level significantly differs between the treatment groups.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Although I am stressed, I still use IT! Theorizing the decisive impact of strain and addiction of social network site users in post-acceptance theory
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
This paper examines the decisive roles of strain and addiction in post-acceptance behavior of social networking sites' users. Therefore, we focus in a first step on the formation of discontinuous usage intentions by theorizing strain, addiction, and satisfaction as direct influencing factor that causes and/or inhibits them. In a second step, the influence of these variables on the intention-behavior relation is focused. We theorize that addiction as well as the ratio between satisfaction and strain moderate whether users transfer discontinuous usage intentions into non-usage behavior. To validate the subsequent research model we propose a longitudinal research setting and present initial results, whereupon satisfaction and strain - but not addiction - causes discontinuous usage intentions. We discuss our expected contributions by revealing that satisfaction, strain, and addiction influence whether a technology is used continuously; however, their influence on intentions and actual behaviors differs.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Innovation Success and Absorptive Capacity: The Combined Influence of Information Systems and Combinative Capabilities - A Theoretical Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

View Abstract
Innovation is important for a firm's success and has been shown to be essentially influenced by absorptive capacity (ACAP). ACAP has been conceptualized by various dimensions that, in turn, rest on diverse antecedents. Currently, little is known about the impact of information systems (IS) on these dimensions of ACAP. Drawing on the complementarity argument that IS will only render an effect if jointly employed with complementary organizational capabilities, we develop a research model that elucidates the interplay of organizational capabilities, ACAP, and their effect on innovation success. In particular, we deal with combinative capabilities by splitting these organizational capabilities into mechanisms and control modes. Addressing calls in the literature and from industry, this model contributes to our understanding of how to build and improve a firm's innovation capabilities by theorizing combinative capabilities and IS as antecedents of ACAP.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Using Social Software for Enhancing IS Talents' E-Learning Motivation
Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Cincinnati (OH)

View Abstract
In the aftermath of the global economic recession, 34% of all companies struggle to fill open positions. IS talents are the top-5 employees in demand. The countries' education systems are not flexible enough to provide enough workers with the right skills at the right point in time. E-learning could be part of the solution, if it were realizing its potential. The facts indicate that success of elearning in the academic context is considerable, but users are not enough motivated to participate in corporate e-learning inhibiting life-long learning. Given the advent of social software and its potential to increase user motivation, this paper specifically develops a model predicting the impact of social software features on user motivation to participate in corporate asynchronous elearning activities. Providing guidance for future e-learning research and implementations, it bases its findings on broad literature reviews.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Effect of Coping Mechanisms on Technology Induced Stress: Towards a Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

View Abstract
Information and communication technology induced stress, called technostress, influences users negatively. Numerous investigations are made about technostress; however, none consider the concept of coping in order to explain strategies to avoid these negative consequences. Therefore, this paper develops a theoretical model to explain the coping process and how it influences technostress. The model theorizes that threat and coping appraisal are major determinants of emotional- and problem-focused coping whereby coping resources and individual's controllability influence the choice and the efficacy of coping. The resulting problem- or emotional-focused coping strategies are theorized to moderate the stressor-train relationship such that negative consequences can be avoided. The theoretical model suggests a different perspective on the linear view on the relationship between stressors and strain by proposing the consideration of the moderation effect of coping.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
In the spotlight - evaluating how celebrities affect floss developers' participation motivation
Proceedings of the 21th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Utrecht, The Netherlands

View Abstract
Motivating one's workforce is a major challenge for organizations. Demotivated employees not only cause harm to organizations' productivity and innovation but also show increased turn-over intentions. As in the case of organizations, projects developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) depend strongly on the motivation of their contributors. Existing research repeatedly highlights project members' motivation for FLOSS projects' success and continuance. However, existing evaluations primarily treat project members' participation motives as exogenous constructs. As a result no operational advice can be derived for FLOSS projects on how to motivate their contributors. This research takes an alternative view and regards FLOSS developers' motivation as product of their self-determination and influences of their surrounding environment. Drawing on Self-Determination-Theory (SDT), we consider FLOSS developers' motivation as multi-dimensional and sensitive to environmental stimuli. As an example for such environmental stimuli we propose that project celebrities (members with a high standing in the FLOSS community) stimulate the participation motives of project members in different ways. An evaluation with 65 participants of Google Summer of Code (GSoC) largely supports our research model and provides evidence for the endogenous character of FLOSS developers' motivation. Our research results suggest that celebrities stimulate rather self-determined than externally regulated motives.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Together but apart - How spatial, temporal and cultural distances affect FLOSS developers' project retention
Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Cincinnati (OH)

View Abstract
Companies rely more and more on virtual teams which consist of globally dispersed members. Unfortunately, members' separation can raise considerable interpersonal challenges. In order to prevent conflicts from deescalating and ensure effective teamwork, companies pay careful attention to the management of members' spatial, temporal and cultural distances. While initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) similarly combine a worldwide distributed workforce, relatively little is known about how members' separation affects their collaboration. However, without such an understanding no adequate advice can be derived for managers of FLOSS initiatives on how to foster members' collaboration and retention. Building on lessons learned from the organizational domain this research hypothesizes that spatial, temporal and cultural distances are key factors for FLOSS developers' team integration and project retention. To evaluate our research hypotheses, we study FLOSS developers' contribution and conversation behavior and extract objective figures on their spatial, temporal and cultural distances to each other.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Recruiting Trends 2013 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Automotive, Finanzdienstleistung und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2013 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Maier, C., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2013)
Bewerbungspraxis 2013 - Eine empirische Studie mit über 6.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Towards understanding social software and its impact on corporate e-learning motivation
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Leipzig

View Abstract
This research combines recent discussions in the cross-disciplinary areas of e-learning, social software, and training motivation. On the one hand, e-learning with its role in a fast paced knowledge society, its potential to revolutionize education and the gap between research and practitioners is already in discussion for years. Discussions are becoming more intense with the rise of social software. On the other hand, human resources, life-long learning, and motivating employees to participate in trainings appear critical to organizations. This research focuses on e-learning in the corporate context and examines the impact of social software features on user motivation based on a review of training motivation literature and on 39 interviews conducted in an international IT services company. Findings suggest that the impact of social software features is still unknown, and that differentiating them by the learner's needs leads to further insights.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Influence of SOA Governance Mechanisms on IT Flexibility and Service Reuse
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:1), p. 86-101, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.10.003

View Abstract
While many firms have introduced SOA, only one in five have achieved anticipated benefits such as increased IT flexibility or reuse. Industry analysts assume that a lack of SOA governance is the main reason why SOA projects fail. Addressing the substantial research gap on SOA governance this paper theoretically and empirically investigates which SOA governance mechanisms are needed to achieve the benefits of SOA, such as increasing IT flexibility and reusing services. The proposed theoretical SOA governance model is evaluated using data from 81 SOA-using organizations. Overall, the results confirm the relevance of a variety of SOA governance mechanisms (structures, processes, and employees/relations), but at the same time, that IT infrastructure flexibility and service reuse are influenced by different mechanisms. Key governance mechanisms that show a strong effect on infrastructure flexibility are using standards, service management processes, educating employees, and IT/business communication while reuse can only be increased through service management, standards and qualification. Contrary to expectations, implementing new, dedicated decision-making bodies for SOA hampers organizations in achieving higher degrees of IT flexibility and reuse, and a firm is better off using existing IT decision-making bodies.

Moos, B., Beimborn, D., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Role of Knowledge Management Systems for Innovation: An Absorptive Capacity Perspective
International Journal of Innovation Management (17:5), article 1359919, http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S1363919613500199

View Abstract
What is the role of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) for a firm's innovativeness and absorptive capacity (ACAP)? Research shows that a firm's capacity to acquire and utilize relevant knowledge, i.e., its absorptive capacity, is decisive for innovation success. We develop a theoretical model that links the availability and usage of KMS with a firm's ACAP and its organizational knowledge to explain its contribution for a firm's innovation success. Using data from 222 manufacturing firms we can show that the availability of a KMS in a firm affects its innovation success by contributing to its ACAP. Looking at the impact of different knowledge types on innovativeness, the results show that only technological knowledge is a substantial determinant of innovation success but not market knowledge.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.09.001
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

View Abstract
An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

2012

Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., and Riedl-Wiesinger, B. (2012)
Top-Themen für Recruiter: Studie untersucht Personalbeschaffung in 500 größten Unternehmen Österreichs
Personal Manager - Zeitschrift für Human Resources (4), 14-16

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Role of Techno-Stressors and Techno-Exhaustion in Employees' Daily Work: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences of these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work stressors, work exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed theory enables a comparison of whether technology or other work stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes. Based on an empirical analysis (N=306), the results of our study show that techno-stressors have an impact on work stressors and techno-exhaustion is a contributing factor for work exhaustion. Next, we can show that the effects are different for IT and non-IT professionals as techno-exhaustion have an effect on each outcome variable for non-IT professionals, but not for IT professionals. The influence of techno-stressors is mediated on each outcome variable through techno-exhaustion for non-IT professionals but not for IT professionals. Furthermore, techno-exhaustion is significantly higher for non-IT professionals, even if they use IT at work far less than IT professionals, and techno-exhaustion has a stronger influence on non-IT professionals' overall work exhaustion. We conclude that techno-stress research has to consider whether occupations use IT daily as core of their working process or solely as a supporting instrument in order to provide a detailed explanation for technologies inducing stress at work.

Wiesinger, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
How Do Planned and Actual Interaction Structures Differ in Global Outsourcing Arrangements?
In: Kotlarsky, J., Oshri, I., and Willcocks, L. P. (eds.): The Dynamics of Global Sourcing: Perspectives and Practices, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 20-38.

View Abstract
How and why do actual interaction structures in global outsourcing arrangements differ from those originally planned? We use a social network perspective to analyze the structure of social interaction networks among operational staff and management of vendor and client firm in an outsourcing arrangement. We apply a case study approach to understand which interaction structures appear and whether they are in accordance with those structures formally defined in the outsourcing governance. We found that real interaction often differs from the plan and we provide theoretical explanations for understanding these deviations, thus contributing to the understanding of outsourcing governance and outsourcing relationship management.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Social Networks as a Source and Symbol of Stress: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
This research examines the sources and consequences of stress when using online social networks (OSN). In a first step, the five OSN-induced stressors invasion, pattern, complexity, uncertainty, and disclosure are identified. In a second step, the Model of Continuous OSN Usage is developed in order to examine the influence of these five stressors. Therefore, the model is based on the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households and the Post-Acceptance Model. Results of an empirical analysis with 154 OSNs users reveal that 57 per cent of satisfaction and 64 per cent of continuous usage intention can be explained within the Model of Continuous OSN Usage. Notably, the five stressors have a higher strength of effect on satisfactions than the three attitudinal beliefs hedonic, utilitarian, and social outcomes altogether. In summary, the results offer a theoretical foundation for recent practical observations that OSNs are a source and symbol of stress.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Using User Personality to explain the Intention-Behavior Gap and Changes in Beliefs: A Longitudinal Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
The research reported in this article intends to investigate whether individuals a) update degrees of beliefs over time and b) transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior in a different manner based on their personality. Therefore, the personality trait dispositional resistance is discussed within the Integrative Framework of Technology Use. Results of an empirical longitudinal analysis (N=145) show that individuals update their beliefs based on prior beliefs and usage behavior differently in accordance with their personality. Results also reveal that individuals transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior differently based on their personality. Hence, we discuss our contributions to technology adoption research by highlighting the importance of personality traits when investigating technology-related beliefs and behavior over time. Results also include an assessment of the findings' practical relevance by identifying which individuals maintain negative beliefs over time and by identifying the high extent of technology usage as a possibility for overcoming negative beliefs.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Gaming to Find a New Job - Examining Job Seekers' Intention to Use Serious Games as a Self-Assessment Tool
Zeitschrift für Personalforschung: German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management (26:3), p. 218-240

View Abstract
Serious games can be used as self-assessment tools in recruiting processes. We develop a model explaining jobseekers' intentions to use these applications, which help them to gain a realistic idea of the job at hand and allows them to submit their application only if the job truly fits their individual profile. Drawing on organizational justice theory and the technology acceptance literature, our model is empirically evaluated using data from 1,882 jobseekers. The results indicate that jobseekers' intention to use self-assessments is driven in particular by its perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived selection fairness. In contrast, the issue of privacy security has no significant impact on jobseekers' intentions. For firms, using serious games as a self-assessment tool can lead to a reduction in the total number of unsuitable applications they receive.

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and von Stetten, A. (2012)
Personalbeschaffung im deutschen Mittelstand - Eine empirische Analyse des Status quo
In: Meyer, J.-A. (ed.): Personalmanagement in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen, JOSEF EUL VERLAG, Lohmar, 131-157. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Personalmanagement-kleinen-mittleren-Unternehmen-KMU-Forschung/dp/3844101462/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1339675191&sr=8-1

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Empirical Evidence for an Individual's Dispositional Resistance to IT-Induced Changes
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
As information systems (IS) usage is the missing link from information technology (IT) investments to the business value impact of IT (DeLone and McLean 2003), it is a significant issue for IS researchers and practitioners, if individuals resist using these systems. Several recent models have been developed in order to offer insights which perceptual beliefs foster user resistance. Results reveal perceptual beliefs as perceived threats, technostress, or switching costs as major determinants for user resistance. Nevertheless, user resistance has not been researched from a perspective of predisposed individual differences so far. Consequently, this paper proposes the new construct dispositional resistance to IT-induced changes. This reflects inclinations to resist any kind of IT-related change and discusses resistance from the perspective of individual differences. Within this approach, it is theoretically hypothesized, how this inclination influences perceptual beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Empirical results reveal strong impacts of the newly proposed construct on technostress.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and Ganouchi, M. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and Ganouchi, M. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den 500 größten Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
When Social Networking Turns to Social Overload: Explaining the Stress, Emotional Exhaustion, and Quitting Behavior from Social Network Sites' Users
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain
Best Paper Award Nominee

View Abstract
This research responds to a current phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue, while using social network sites, such as Facebook, which original intend to provide hedonic value to users. To explain this current phenomenon, we propose and evaluate a research model based on the stress-strain-outcome model. Focal point is the stressor social overload, which induces feelings of being emotional exhausted. For that reason, some users of social network sites start to get dissatisfied and report an increasing discontinuous usage intention. In addition, the research article provides evidence for the fact that the effect of stress on the two outcome variables satisfaction and discontinuous usage intention is fully mediated through strain. This is validated with an empirical survey with 523 Facebook users. Several implications for technology adoption research are discussed.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Train and Retain - The Impact of Mentoring on the Retention of FLOSS Developers
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Milwaukee (WI)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
The acquisition of new knowledge is a critical task for software development. IT companies spend considerable resources in the training of their employees to succeed in a continuously changing industry. Depending on the voluntary commitment of their contributors, initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) identified members' learning and their retention as vital. Although contributors' knowledge building has been repeatedly found to facilitate their project continuance, FLOSS projects are lacking operational advices on how to assist their members' learning. Drawing on previous literature which emphasizes project members' social interactions and their practical experiences to build new knowledge, we propose mentoring as a training method for FLOSS projects. Based on organizational experiences, we propose a measure to evaluate mentoring as an appropriate strategy for FLOSS initiatives to facilitate individuals' learning and to retain their contributors on longitudinal base.

Wagner, H., Moos, B., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Contagious Power of Innovativeness: A Comparison of Different Types of Firm Partners
Proceedings of the Academy of Management Conference, Boston (MA)

View Abstract
Continuously innovating is known to provide firms with a competitive edge over rival firms. As innovations are often created in networks, a firm's partners exert an influence on the focal firm's innovative outcome. Although many studies deal with innovation networks and open innovation as a means to explore external knowledge and exploit knowledge externally e.g., dealing with characteristics of partnership agreements, there is virtually no research regarding characteristics of external partners. Namely, whether a focal firm's partners are innovative themselves and what the effects of this innovativeness on a focal firm's innovative outcome might be. This study considers different types of partners such as customers and suppliers and deals with the differential impact of partners` innovativeness on a focal firm's knowledge stock, absorptive capacity (ACAP), and innovation success. Drawing on literature on open innovation and ACAP and employing a survey in the manufacturing industry, we show whether a certain partner types' innovativeness is linked to innovation success, knowledge stock, and ACAP of a focal firm. E.g., we found that only the innovativeness of firms organized in clusters is positively and directly linked to innovation success, while customers' innovativeness influences positively and directly certain components of ACAP and knowledge stock.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Are we in the Right Profession? - Comparing Information Systems, Computer Science and other Disciplines' Professional's Perceptions of the Job Market
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Milwaukee (WI)

View Abstract
Based on an empirical analysis with 2,887 professionals with different educational backgrounds, this research shows that Information Systems and Computer Science professionals are more optimistic toward the labor market and available job alternatives than other disciplines such as General Business Management, Engineering, or Social and Humane Science. The results underline that professionals in the IT field have a bright future for their further career. In times of shrinking information systems and computer systems enrollments, this promising prospect can support both undergraduate and graduate schools activities to promote their courses. Several implications for this issue will be discussed in the paper.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Analyzing and managing the impact of cultural behaviour patterns on social capital in multinational IT project teams - A case study approach
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (4:3), p.137-151

View Abstract
This paper contributes to a better understanding and to mitigate negative consequences of cultural diversity in multinational IT project teams. Our research explores how culture-specific behaviours impact social capital among team members and how firms can manage the strains. In the existing IS culture literature, culture-specific behaviours are - if at all - traced back to single culture dimensions. In contrast, the approach proposed in this article goes one step further suggesting that it is necessary to combine several culture dimensions to better understand a certain culture-specific behaviour and consequently be able to better manage resulting relationship problems in multinational settings. Conducting exploratory case studies in six multinational IT projects, two exemplary cultural behaviour patterns (face maintenance in India and post-communism in the Czech Republic) are identified, and management actions to avoid project performance problems are derived. The results contribute to a better understanding and management of the negative impact of culturespecific behaviours in IT project teams and corroborate that research based on culture dimensions, such as those conceptualized by Hofstede or House et al., is valuable for understanding multi-country IS projects. The findings in particular suggest that aggregating these dimensions to cultural behaviour patterns improves their explanatory power and consequently the management's capability to mitigate the negative consequences of cultural diversity.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Auswirkungen kulturspezifischer Verhaltensmuster auf das Sozialkapital in multinationalen IT-Projektteams - Ein Fallstudienansatz
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (54:3), p.135-151

View Abstract
Die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit hilft, negative Auswirkungen kultureller Unterschiede in multikulturellen IT-Projektteams besser verstehen und mittels geeigneter Managementmaßnahmen adressieren zu können. Es wird untersucht, wie sich kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen auf das Sozialkapital multikultureller Teams auswirken und wie ein Unternehmen dadurch entstehende Spannungen besser bewältigen kann. Die bestehende Literatur, die sich mit den kulturellen Auswirkungen im Kontext von Informationssystemen beschäftigt, führt kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen - wenn überhaupt - nur auf einzelne Kulturdimensionen zurück. Der in dieser Arbeit vorgeschlagene Ansatz geht dagegen einen Schritt weiter. Wir argumentieren, dass eine Kombination und Aggregation mehrerer Kulturdimensionen zu so genannten kulturellen Verhaltensmustern notwendig ist, um ein bestimmtes kulturspezifisches Verhalten besser verstehen und die sich daraus ergebenden Beziehungsprobleme in multikulturellen Szenarien in der Folge besser nachvollziehen und bewältigen zu können. Auf Basis von Fallstudien in sechs länderübergreifenden IT-Projekten werden zwei beispielhafte kulturspezifische Verhaltensmuster betrachtet (Gesichtswahrung in Indien und Post-Kommunismus in Tschechien). Zudem werden geeignete Managementmaßnahmen abgeleitet, die zur Vermeidung der sich in den Projekten ergebenden Probleme beitragen. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse fördern ein besseres Verständnis sowie das Management negativer Auswirkungen kulturspezifischen Verhaltens in IT-Projektteams und bestätigen, dass Forschung auf Basis bewährter Kulturdimensionen hierfür einen wichtigen Beitrag liefern kann.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11573-012-0582-z

View Abstract
Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2012)
How To Achieve Operational Business-IT Alignment: Insights From A Global Aerospace Firm
MIS Quarterly Executive (11:1), p. 25-36

View Abstract
A common challenge facing firms is how to effectively embed strategic business-IT alignment into daily routines at the operational level. Based on our findings from following an alignment project in a global aerospace industry leader for almost two years, we put forward a framework, which we call OperA, for establishing operational level business-IT alignment. This framework has three dimensions - knowledge, communication and trust, and identifies alignment paths for three strategic situations faced by firms: major planned changes, regular operations and major unplanned changes. Each path is anchored in a different dimension of the framework. The global aerospace case shows how different mechanisms used for each path improve business processes and enable successful change. The case also revealed frequent pitfalls and dependencies between the dimensions and associated mechanisms that top managers should be aware of as they strive to achieve operational business-IT alignment.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Do Service-Oriented IT Architectures facilitate Business Process Outsourcing? A Study in the German Service Industry
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 77-108

View Abstract
How does a firm's IT architecture affect its potential to outsource business processes? As Information Technology (IT) has become many firms' essential operational infrastructure or "backbone", we are interested in scrutinizing to what extent the kind of IT architecture affects a firm's boundaries or the plasticity of its boundaries. Focusing on the particular concept of service-oriented architectures (SOA), we concretely ask: How does SOA affect business process outsourcing potentials? Since SOA is widely expected to modularize the IT implementation of business processes, it should increase business process outsourcing (BPO) in terms of buying in the provision of single business functionalities. We develop and empirically evaluate a theoretical model that conceptualizes the relationship between SOA and BPO. Questionnaire data from 115 firms give first evidence that SOA facilitates BPO. By increasing IT modularity, SOA supports BPO by increasing sourcing flexibility and, in particular, operational benefits, while at the same time lowering financial risks and strategic risks, such as lock-in. Overall, however, firms see SOA-based BPO mainly in an operational context with low hidden costs and little strategic benefits.

Weitzel, T., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends - Ein Rückblick auf 10 Jahre
Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Health Care, IT sowie Umwelt & Recycling
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Bewerbungspraxis 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Maier, C., Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Guhl, E. (2012)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2012 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Implementation of Large-scale Information Systems in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - A Case Study of Work-and Health-related Consequences
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Using a case study of a financial service provider, this research provides a next step toward an answer to the question about the importance of an employee's attitude toward a newly introduced information system in light of a mandatory usage setting. Based on the Commitment to Change Model, the paper argues theoretically and provides case study evidence that negative attitudes toward new information systems influence work-related and health-related outcomes. The observed case indicates that a negative evaluation of a new financial information system leads to negative consequences such as decreased organizational commitment and overall job satisfaction as well as an increased turnover intention and a higher number of sick days. The results implicate that work- and health-related consequences are potential dependent variables for technology adoption research and that practitioners have to address these issues during the implementation of information systems in organizations.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Whom to ask for what knowledge? A comparison of exchange partners and their impact on knowledge types
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
From which sources does a firm acquire its knowledge? One of the most important key assets of a firm is its knowledge stock, which can be distinguished into different types of knowledge (e.g., market knowledge). This knowledge stock results from internal and/or from external sources such as exchange partners (e.g., customers). Our paper focuses on these external partners and investigates how the social capital residing in the relationships to these exchange partners is related to the creation of different types of knowledge. Thereby, this research generates practical guidelines for investing in a firm's network. Using data from 161 firms, the results show that (1) customers are the most important source for market knowledge; (2) regarding process, technological and organizational knowledge the combination of R&D partners and customers contributes the most; and (3) for product knowledge no single source being the most important knowledge contributor can be identified.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Who will remain? - An evaluation of actual Person-Job and Person-Team fit to predict developer retention in FLOSS-projects
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Today businesses and private households worldwide rely on Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). Most FLOSS-projects however are threatened in their existence due to a lack of sustained contributors. The early identification of developers who are likely to remain at the project is an eminent task for the management of FLOSS-initiatives. Previous research showed that the subjective judgment of individuals is often inaccurate emphasizing the need to objectively assess retention behavior. Consistent with the concepts Person-Job (P-J) and Person-Team (P-T) fit from recruitment literature, we derive objective measures to predict developer retention in FLOSS-projects. To evaluate our proposed measures we assess the retention of former Google Summer of Code (GSoC) students. The results show that students' prior level of project experience, expertise and communication intensity correlates strongly with their ongoing participation. Surprisingly, our analysis reveals that students with abilities that are underrepresented in the project do not remain considerably longer.

2011

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2011)
Zielgruppen, Prozesse, Personen - Es gibt viele Wege, das Recruiting zu optimieren
Personalmagazin (Sonderveröffentlichung "Online rekrutieren"), Issue 10, 4-7

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Knowledge domains, innovation success, and knowledge management systems: Evidence from an empirical study in the manufacturing industry
Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP 8.2/Organizations and Society in Information Systems (OASIS) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

View Abstract
Knowledge can be seen as a key asset of a firm for coming up with innovations. Therefore the knowledge stock of a firm comprising different domains like market or technological knowledge builds the basis for innovating successfully. Accordingly, the use of knowledge management systems is of great importance for building and enhancing the knowledge stock. The paper analyses the effect of each knowledge domain on innovations success and what the role of knowledge management systems is about within this context. Using data from 225 firms the results show that the use of knowledge management systems influences each knowledge domain positively and that for innovation success technological as well as process knowledge plays the most important role. Thereby our research gives practical guidelines for investigating into specific knowledge domains for generating innovation success.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Is the source strong with you? A fit perspective to predict sustained participation of FLOSS developers
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Despite the notable success of some Free Libre Open Source (FLOSS) projects, the overwhelming majority of FLOSS initiatives fail, mostly because of insufficient long-term participation of developers. In contrast to previous research which focuses on the individual perspective, we approach developer retention from an organizational perspective to help existing project members identify potential long-term contributors who are worth spending their time on. Methodically, we transfer two concepts from professional recruiting, Person-Job (P-J) and Person-Team (P-T) fit, to the FLOSS domain and evaluate their usage to predict FLOSS developer retention. An empirical analysis reveals that both fit concepts are appropriate to explain FLOSS retention behavior. Looking at contributor retention in Google Summer of Code (GSoC) projects, we find a moderate correlation with P-J fit and a weak correlation with P-T fit.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Reiss, Z. (2011)
Managing the Impact of Differences in National Culture on Social Capital in Multinational IT Project Teams - A German Perspective
In: Heinzl, A., Buxmann, P., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (eds.): Theory-Guided Modeling and Empiricism in Information Systems Research, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, 187-206. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Theory-Guided-Modeling-Empiricism-Information-Research/dp/3790827800/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1317916027&sr=8-1

Heinzl, A., Buxmann, P., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Theory-Guided Modeling and Empiricism in Information Systems Research
Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg (ISBN 978-3-7908-2780-4). Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Theory-Guided-Modeling-Empiricism-Information-Research/dp/3790827800/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1317916027&sr=8-1

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
An Instrument for Measuring SOA Maturity
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Existing empirical research on the business value of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) has only measured the extent of SOA adoption - but not maturity - to determine whether typical goals, like increased business agility or IT cost reduction, could be achieved. However, a widely implemented SOA might be less mature than an SOA adopted only in particular areas of the organization, which in turn can lead to mismeasurement and misinterpretation. On the other side, the few existing SOA maturity frameworks that have been specified by previous researchers lack valid operationalizations to make them applicable to empirical research. Ready to use items and scales for evaluating the particular maturity level of an organization are missing. We propose to measure the degree of SOA maturity as a new variable for future empirical research especially in the context of SOA business value. Our analytical approach uses 21 items to classify the maturity of an organization's SOA in seven maturity levels along seven maturity dimensions derived from The Open Group Service Integration Maturity Model (OSIMM). The applicability of this new instrument is shown using data from 121 organizations. The results show that the majority of the organizations has only reached SOA maturity levels two to four. Also, higher levels of SOA maturity highly and significantly increase the realized business value from SOA in terms of business agility, straight through processing (STP), and reduced IT costs. However, the marginal benefits are decreasing for higher levels of SOA maturity in cases of STP and business agility.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Does SOA Create or Require IT/Business Collaboration? Investigating SOA's Potential to Reduce the Gap Between IT and Business
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China

View Abstract
By extending the research on identifying the possible benefits of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), we investigate how SOA delivers its value in an organization. One perspective in the existing literature suggests that service orientation works through creating better IT/Business collaboration as the "services" concept is a shared mental model that reduces the mental gap between IT and business units. Another perspective proposes that SOA benefits require IT/Business collaboration in the first place as IT and business must closely collaborate in order to leverage SOA's potential. We develop a theoretical model to understand how service orientation and close collaboration between IT and business departments are related. An analysis using data from 122 organizations reveals that SOA does not advance - but rather requires - close collaboration between the IT and business departments (i.e., collaboration is a moderator, not mediator, between SOA and its impacts). Therefore, close IT/business collaboration is an important success factor for realizing SOA's value potential and must be established using other means.

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., von Westarp, F., von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., and Kraft, B. (2011)
Recruiting 2011
Weka Verlag, Zürich, Schweiz. ISBN 978-3-297-19971-8. Erhältlich unter: http://www.weka.ch/shop/produkt_view.cfm?nr=19972011

View Abstract
Der demografische Wandel und der Fachkräftemangel sind in der Schweiz, Österreich und in Deutschland die beiden mit Abstand wichtigsten unternehmensexternen und damit nicht direkt beeinflussbaren Trends für die Personalbeschaffung im Jahr 2011. In Kombination mit dem Umstand, dass die Unternehmen aus der D/A/CH-Region im Jahr 2011 auch wieder mehr Personal einstellen wollen, zeigt dieses Ergebnis, dass die Wirtschaftskrise offensichtlich der Vergangenheit angehört und wieder andere Themen in den Fokus der Personalverantwortlichen rücken. Eines dieser Themen, das auch einen Schwerpunkt im vorliegenden Buch darstellt, ist die Nutzung von Social Media für die Rekrutierung. Differenziert man zwischen den verschiedenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten, so zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass die Unternehmen Social Media aktuell vordergründig nutzen, um Image-Werbung zu betreiben oder um nach zusätzlichen Informationen über bereits identifizierte Kandidaten bzw. Bewerber zu suchen. Insgesamt werden Social Media jedoch noch relativ verhalten genutzt, vor allem was die Schaltung von Stellenanzeigen oder die aktive Suche nach geeigneten Kandidaten betrifft. Eine weitere wichtige Frage, die sich den Personalverantwortlichen stellt, ist die nach der Effektivität und der Effizienz verschiedener Rekrutierungskanäle. Im Hinblick auf die Effektivität zeigt sich, dass die Unternehmen vor allem mit denjenigen Kandidaten zufrieden sind, die über Mitarbeiterempfehlungen, die persönlichen Netzwerke der Recruiter, Internet-Stellenbörsen oder die eigene Unternehmens-Webseite eingestellt wurden. Genau diese Kanäle weisen aus Sicht der Befragten auch ein sehr gutes Kosten-/Nutzen-Verhältnis und damit eine hohe Effizienz auf. Zwei generelle Trends, die sich seit vielen Jahren beobachten lassen, sind die verstärkte Nutzung des Internets im Personalmarketing sowie die zunehmende Digitalisierung des Bewerbungseingangs. Die diesjährigen Ergebnisse bestätigen diese beiden Entwicklungen. Sowohl in der Schweiz als auch in Österreich und Deutschland werden die meisten freien Stellen im Internet auf Unternehmens-Webseiten und in Internet-Stellenbörsen veröffentlicht. Die meisten tatsächlichen Einstellungen werden ebenfalls über diese beiden Kanäle realisiert. Der Blick auf den Eingang der Bewerbungen zeigt eine eindeutige Präferenz der Unternehmen für die beiden elektronischen Verfahren der E-Mail- und der Formularbewerbung, wohingegen die klassische, papierbasierte Bewerbungsmappe immer weiter an Bedeutung verliert. Entsprechend der Präferenz der Unternehmen gehen aktuell auch deutlich mehr elektronische Bewerbungen als papierbasierte Bewerbungsmappen bei ihnen ein. Das vorliegende Werk ist das zweite Rekrutierungshandbuch des Centre of Human Resources Information Systems (CHRIS) der Universitäten Bamberg und Frankfurt am Main. Es basiert auf den Ergebnissen jährlicher Umfragen mit Rekrutierungsverantwortlichen aus der Schweiz, Österreich und Deutschland. In Ergänzung zu den Umfrageergebnissen bieten dem Leser spannende Fallstudien mit großen und mittelständischen Unternehmen einen interessanten Überblick über die Personalbeschaffung in der D/A/CH-Region.

Laumer, S. and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Outsourcing im HRM: Die "Make or Buy"-Entscheidung
Personal Manager - Zeitschrift für Human Resources (4), 46-49

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Wirtky, T., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Wild, U., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Going beyond operational efficiency in HR using IT - A Literature Review of Human Resources Information Systems
Proceedings of the 17th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Detroit (MI)

View Abstract
Leading academics claim that the management of human resources will be most critical in gaining competitive advantage. Today, the human resources departments (HR) are transforming themselves from an administrative cost-center to an internal partner delivering additional business value. In this transformation process, information technology (IT) could play a key role. Therefore, this paper aims to unfold both the current state of knowledge concerning the value contribution of information systems (IS) for the HR function and approaches that go even beyond operational efficiency. Reviewing nearly 8,000 articles, published in the proceedings of eight major IS conferences reveals that in total 35 articles exclusively deal with the topic of human resources information systems (HRIS) but only very few research approaches show, how HRIS could help to go beyond operational efficiency. Furthermore, the literature analysis identifies that approaches dealing with the IT support for HR planning processes are completely missing so far.

Wagner, H., Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and Moos, B. (2011)
Unternehmensnetzwerke und Innovationserfolg: Eine empirische Untersuchung im produzierenden Gewerbe
Ibidem Verlag, Stuttgart (ISBN 978-3-8382-0076-7). Online unter: www.ibidem-verlag.de/buecher/9783838200767.htm

View Abstract
Innovationsfähigkeit ist in vielen Unternehmen wichtigstes nicht-monetäres Ziel und somit ein entscheidender Wettbewerbsfaktor. Doch was macht Unternehmen innovativ? Das SENECA Rahmenwerk (Social Enterprise NEtworks and sustainable Competitive Advantage) fasst den derzeitigen Stand der Forschung im Bereich der Innovationsfähigkeit zusammen und untersucht die Bedeutung von Unternehmensnetzwerken, verschiedenen Wissensarten (z.B. Markt- und Technologiewissen) sowie die Fähigkeit von Unternehmen, neues Wissen aufzunehmen und auch umzusetzen. Eine Analyse unter 2.500 Unternehmen des produzierenden Gewerbes in Deutschland zeigt: (1) Innovationsführer zeichnen sich unternehmensintern durch besseres Wissens- und Innovationsmanagement und extern durch bessere Ausnutzung ihres Partnernetzwerkes aus. (2) Innovationserfolg entsteht aus den Faktoren: (2.1) Netzwerk (externes Netzwerk des Unternehmens) (2.2) Wissensstand (internes Markt-, Technologie-, Prozess-, Produkt- und Organisationswissen) (2.3) Aufnahmefähigkeit (externes Wissen aus dem Netzwerk dem eigenen Unternehmen hinzufügen können) (2.4) Umsetzungsfähigkeit (internes wie externes Wissen tatsächlich umsetzen können) Wichtige Ansatzpunkte zur Verbesserung der Innovationsfähigkeit von Unternehmen sind: (A) Technologie- und Umsetzungs-Know-how: In den meisten Unternehmen ist das Technologie-Know-how stärker ausgeprägt als das Umsetzungs-Know-how. Tatsächlich differenziert aber Letzteres besonders innovative Unternehmen vom Durchschnitt, womit Umsetzungs-Know-how zur wichtigeren Gestaltungsgröße wird. (B) Innovationsmanagement: Den größten Einfluss auf Innovations- und wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens hat das Innovationsmanagement, welches dennoch in der Mehrzahl der Unternehmen unterentwickelt ist.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Reiss, Z. (2011)
Managing the Impact of Differences in National Culture on Social Capital in Multinational IT Project Teams - A German Perspective
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
How can management handle relationship problems arising from cultural differences in multinational IT project teams? This paper uses a social capital lens to better understand the negative impact of cultural differences in IT project teams. In contrast to many previous works we do not consider cultural differences as a whole but explore the role of the different national culture dimensions. This allows for a more detailed view on cultural differences in a team context and thus contributes to a better understanding about which dimensions of national culture drive relationship problems and which management measures can help to dampen the negative effects. Based on several exploratory cases (6 multinational IT projects in 4 companies, headquartered in Germany), the authors identify three patterns showing typical problems in team social relationships which arise from differences in particular dimensions of national culture. Pattern-specific as well as general management measures, employed to address the culture-driven negative effects, are identified as well.

Moos, B., Beimborn, D., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Knowledge management systems, absorptive capacity, and innovation success
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
Innovation is considered a major driving force for the prosperity of firms and entire economies. Research suggests that a firm's capacity to acquire and utilize relevant knowledge from internal and external sources, i.e. its absorptive capacity (ACAP), is decisive for innovation success. But what is the role of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) for a firm's ACAP and innovativeness? Surprisingly, despite lots of mature research on both, ACAP and KMS, there is a gap linking the two. This paper hence asks: What is the effect of knowledge management systems usage on absorptive capacity and innovation success? Responding to recent findings in the management and organizational sciences we develop a theoretical model that links the availability and usage of KMS with a firm's ACAP and its organizational knowledge to explain innovation success. An empirical evaluation using data from 224 manufacturing firms shows that a firm's KMS strongly contributes to its ACAP and catalyzes the innovation process. The results suggest that organizational knowledge is important for innovation success and that successful KMS work through enhancing particular facets of ACAP.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Trend is our Friend - German IT Personnel's Perception of Job-related Factors before, during and after the Economic Downturn
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, San Antonio (TX), Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magid Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award
Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magit Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award

View Abstract
With the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers the global economic crisis has reached one of its summits. Before that time CIOs challenged high turnover rates of IT personnel and recruiting, developing and retaining the IT workforce was one of the most important concerns of CIOs. However, the global economic development has changed on the one side the challenges of organizations, and on the other side also the perception of job-related factors of IT talent. Based on this development we compare major IT turnover constructs using three empirical surveys in 2008, 2009 and 2010 in order to discuss how the global economic development influences the perceptions of job-related factors and turnover intentions of German IT personnel. The analysis showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment is decreasing since 2008, perceived job alternatives are increasing compared to 2009 and turnover intention has reached a maximum in 2010 compared to the two other years in question.

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., Kaestner, T.A., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends 2011 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Finanzdienstleistung, IT und Öffentlicher Dienst
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., Kaestner, T.A., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2011 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., Kaestner, T.A., and von Westarp, F. (2011)
Bewerbungspraxis 2011 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden und Karriereinteressierten
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Eckhardt, A., Brickwedde, W., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Need for a Recruiter 2.0 for Hiring IT Talent - The German Software Manufacturer Case
in: Jerry Luftman (ed.): Managing IT Human Resources: Considerations for Organizations and Personnel, IGI Publishing. Erhältlich unter: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/titledetails.aspx?TitleId=45966&DetailsType=Preface

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
SOA-Governance für effektive serviceorientierte Architekturen - Eine empirische Studie in der deutschen Dienstleistungswirtschaft
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Zürich, Schweiz

View Abstract
Sowohl die jüngere Forschung als auch die Erfahrung von Praktikern postulieren, dass eine SOA-Governance kritisch für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung von serviceorientierten Architekturen (SOA) ist. Dieser Beitrag bietet eine der ersten empirischen Untersuchungen bezüglich der Bedeutung verschiedener SOA-Governance-Mechanismen (Schaffung von Entscheidungsstrukturen, Nutzung von Standards, Verwendung von Servicemanagement- und Serviceentwicklungsprozessen, Qualifikation von Mit-arbeitern und Zusammenarbeit von Fachbereichen) für das Erreichen der gewünschten Modularität und einer hohen Wiederverwendungsrate. Die Ergebnisse basieren auf einer Umfrage unter deutschen Dienstleistungsunternehmen und zeigen, dass eine höhere Wiederverwendung nicht nur direkt durch verschiedene SOA-Governance-Mechanismen, sondern vor allem auch durch eine geeignetere Modularität als Mediator erreicht wird. Außerdem ist die Verwendung bestehender Entscheidungsstrukturen gegenüber der Schaffung neuer Entscheidungsstrukturen in Bezug auf die Erreichung von Modularität und Wiederverwendung zu favorisieren. Zuletzt wird ein starker Einfluss der Verwendung von Standards und klar definierter Servicemanagementprozesse auf die Effektivität von SOA deutlich.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Eine empirische Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages von serviceorientierten Architekturen (SOA)
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Zürich, Schweiz

View Abstract
Bisher wurde der Wertbeitrag der Nutzung von serviceorientierten Architekturen (SOA) für Unternehmen weder in der Praxis noch in der Forschung jenseits von Einzelfallbetrachtungen nachgewiesen. Wir untersuchen in einer ersten quantitativen Studie die realisierten Vorteile einer SOA-Nutzung im Hinblick auf Kostenreduktion, unternehmerische Agilität, Datenqualität, Prozess-Monitoring, interne Geschäftsprozessintegration (STP) und unternehmensübergreifende Integration (B2B). Die Analyse von 134 Unternehmensantworten zeigt, dass SOA zu allen sechs Unternehmensvorteilen beiträgt. Außerdem ist erkennbar, dass sich SOA in klassischen Aspekten flexibler IT-Infrastrukturen wie Modularität, Flexibilität und Skalierbarkeit widerspiegelt. Und auch die Realisierung von Unternehmensvorteilen durch SOA kann zu bedeutenden Teilen über die Verbesserung der IT-Flexibilität als Mediator erklärt werden.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., Schlosser, F., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Die Bedeutung relationaler Faktoren für den IT-Wertbeitrag - Eine Studie unter den größten 1.500 US-Banken
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Zürich, Schweiz

View Abstract
Diese Arbeit untersucht die Auswirkung von operativem ITBusiness-Alignment sowie insbesondere der Gestaltung der Beziehungsschnittstelle zwischen verschiedenen Fachbereichen auf die Nutzungsintensität von Informationssystemen sowie auf die Geschäftsprozessleistung. Wir entwickeln ein theoretisches Modell unter Anwendung einer sozialen Perspektive auf Alignment und auf die Beziehungsschnittstelle und evaluieren es anhand einer Studie der IT-Nutzung im Firmenkreditprozess US-amerikanischer Banken. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Qualität der Beziehungsschnittstelle zwischen verschiedenen Fachbereichen einerseits und zwischen IT-Einheit und Fachbereichen (gemessen in Form von Vertrauen, gemeinsames Wissen und struktureller Interaktion) andererseits erhebliche Auswirkungen auf die Nutzung der Informationssysteme im Kreditprozess und darüber auf die Leistung des Kreditprozesses haben. Insbesondere der Zusammenhang im Dreieck operatives Alignment, Beziehungsschnittstelle zwischen Fachbereichen und Nutzung von Informationssystemen liefert einen neuen Beitrag zu unserem Verständnis des Geschäftswertbeitrages der IT.

Junglas, I., Niehaves, B., Spiekermann, S., Stahl, B.C., Weitzel, T., Winter, R., and Baskerville, R. (2011)
The inflation of academic intellectual capital: the case for design science research in Europe
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (20:1), p. 1-6, http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ejis/journal/v20/n1/pdf/ejis201057a.pdf

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Role of Innovation Governance and Knowledge Management for Innovation Success
Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
To innovate is one of the basic functions of a firm and a competitive necessity in dynamic markets. So what management mechanisms can a firm use to foster innovation success? This paper analyzes if knowledge management (KM) and innovation governance (IG) distinguish top innovation performers. Theoretically, we scrutinize if KM and IG mechanisms, composed of systems capabilities (organizational structures, policies, and processes) and coordination capabilities, are antecedents of absorptive capacity, knowledge stock and, eventually, innovation success of a firm. Using data from 204 firms, the results show that (1) IG and KM applying firms have significantly higher innovation success resulting from higher absorptive capacity and greater knowledge stock, (2) the most important IG mechanisms are measuring innovation success, using tools for monitoring the innovation process and a structured idea management, (3) KM drives innovation generation but not its transfer to products and markets.

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., Schroiff, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Social Network Structure of Alignment - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
The social network structure at the interface between a firm's business and IT units is of vital importance to business/IT alignment and hence an important IT governance object. Yet, there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures and how they affect IT business value. Based on a literature review that comprises articles published in eight top IS journals since 2000, this paper identifies social network structure characteristics which represent antecedents of alignment. These are subsequently translated into precise concepts of social network analysis (SNA). The identification and formalization of such social network structures allow IT governance to implement social engineering mechanisms in order to influence the social network structure and thus business/IT alignment and IT value. Examples for such translated arguments are a high degree centrality of CIOs vis-à-vis other executives and strong ties in terms of cross-domain knowledge between the CIO and other executives.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
What Are Important Governance and Management Mechanisms to Achieve IT Flexibility in Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA)? An Empirical Exploration
Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
Recent research results and practitioner experience both posit that Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) governance is critical to successfully implement and utilize SOA. We investigate the impact of different SOA governance and management mechanisms (structures, processes, and employees) for leveraging SOA's potential to increase an organization's IT infrastructure flexibility. The results based on data from 73 SOA using organizations reveal: (1) a negative impact of implementing new decision-making bodies on 2 dimensions of IT flexibility (IT modularity and integration) (2) a positive impact of the SOA management processes service management and service development on 2 dimensions of IT flexibility (modularity and integration of IT infrastructure) (3) a positive impact of business units collaboratively identifying jointly utilizable services on modularity (4) and a particularly strong impact of standards, and also of employee qualification, on all dimensions of IT infrastructure flexibility.

2010

Weitzel, T., König, W., Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Schlosser, F. (2010)
Die Bedeutung serviceorientierter Architekturen für den Unternehmenserfolg: Eine wissenschaftliche Erhebung in der deutschen Dienstleistungswirtschaft
Research Report, E-Finance Lab der Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Beimborn, D., Moos, B., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Impact of Knowledge Management on Absorptive Capacity
Proceedings of the 2010 IFIP 8.2/Organizations and Society in Information Systems (OASIS) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)
(Research in Progress)

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Electronic Human Resources Management in an E-Business Environment
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (11:4), p. 240-25

View Abstract
This special issue on Electronic Human Resources Management (E-HRM) in an E-Business environment looks at opportunities and challenges associated with recruiting and developing a firm's workforce in a digital world characterized by endemic talent scarcity, changing values and shifting on- and offline behaviors of candidates and employees. We first draw on a Delphi study with leading HR executives from 25 internationally renowned large firms and on a quantitative survey with 144 HR managers from German top 1,000 firms to delineate the key trends and issues for modern HR executives. Demographic challenges and the war for talent are seen as the most important trends in firms of all sizes and in all industries, even ahead of, for example, Social Media or the global economic crisis. Resulting from these trends, our survey reveals that HR managers' most pressing challenges are staff retention and internal and external employer branding. Overall, the results emphasize the importance for an E-HRM that needs to be both effective - adequately fill vacancies - and efficient - make best use of scarce resources. The papers in the special issue address some of the open issues identified. Overall, in a peer-review process two out of nine submitted articles were selected for the special issue (22 per cent acceptance). The first paper by Stefan Strohmeier scrutinizes how e-portfolios can improve e-recruiting and talent management. The second paper by Sharna Wiblen, David Grant and Kristine Dery uses a single case study to learn how a shift from HRM to E-HRM can affect talent management and people in an organization and transform a firm's IT and HR function.

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Influence of Social Structures on Business/IT Alignment
Proceedings of the 2010 JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)

View Abstract
Motivated by the importance of business/IT alignment for IT value creation and the fact that despite an extensive stream of literature discussing drivers of and success factors for alignment, the problem of reaching business/IT alignment is still not fully solved and alignment still ranks among the top three concerns of CIOs, we strive to explain alignment success based on the social structures present at the interface of business and IT on an operational level. While such structures at top management level are prominently discussed success factors of alignment, the analogues structures on the operational level have rarely been analyzed and there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures and how they affect IT business value. We extend our prior research, which identified social patterns that are potentially beneficial for business/IT alignment, by adding detailed explanations of why these are beneficial for business/IT alignment. Hence, this paper contributes to existing research by providing new insights to the general assumption that social structures are important and by explaining why, despite the vivid discussion, still many firms fail to establish business/IT alignment. We find that strong bridges at the interface between business and IT, as well as strong connections of interface actors with their management and their unit are advantageous for the creation of IT/business knowledge, solidarity between IT and business and the power of the interface actors between IT and business, and in this way are beneficial for business/IT alignment.

Schroiff, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Role of Social Network Structures in Outsourced Projects
Proceedings of the 2010 International Research Workshop on Information Technology Project Management (IRWITPM) (Pre-ICIS), St. Louis (MO)

View Abstract
IT management increasingly involves teams dispersed throughout a globalized world in internal as well as outsourced projects. In this work, we focus on the latter and analyze the impact of social network structures between vendor and client team members on project success. We present the findings of a comprehensive literature analysis and give an outlook on the ongoing empirical investigation. The goal is to propose a model linking structural properties of social networks to dimensions of success of outsourced IT projects. We base this model on indications found in prior research and the results of explorative case studies in outsourcing arrangements. Our findings so far show that the network density at the client-vendor interface and the multiplexity of ties are the salient, but not sole, network properties for which existing research implies an influence on success of outsourced IT projects. Case studies will reveal how and why these and other social network properties have an impact on project success.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Investigating Adoption Determinants of Service-oriented Architectures (SOA)
Proceedings of the 2010 Special Interest Group on Services (SIGSVC) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)
(Research in Progress)

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2010)
Recruiting 2010
Weka Verlag, Zürich, Schweiz. ISBN 978-3-297-01983-2. Erhältlich unter: http://www.weka.ch/shop/produkt_view.cfm?nr=19972010

View Abstract
Getrieben durch technischen Fortschritt und Fachkräftemangel bei gleichzeitig knappen Mitteln werden die Rekrutierungsprozesse in Unternehmen kontinuierlich professionalisiert. Dieses Buch bietet eine wichtige Orientierungshilfe für Personaler und zeigt basierend auf einer empirischen Befragung der 2.000 größten Unternehmen in Schweiz, Österreich und Deutschland sowie 1.000 deutscher Mittelständler die aktuellen Recruiting Practices und beleuchtet, wie Unternehmen mit alten Herausforderungen und neuen Medien umgehen. Wichtige Themen sind: - On- und Offline: Welche Kanäle werden zur Personalansprache in der Schweiz, Österreich und Deutschland verwendet, und aus welchen Kanälen kommen die meisten Einstellungen? - Rekrutierung-Controlling und Bewerbermanagementsysteme: Wie werden die HR-Prozesse gestaltet, und was ist der Nutzenbeitrag des E-Recruiting? - Web 2.0: Wie gehen die HR-Verantwortlichen mit Social Media um? Wichtige Ergebnisse sind: - Trotz Wirtschaftskrise erwarten viele Unternehmen aus der D/A/CH-Region wachsende Probleme bei der Besetzung wichtiger Stellen. So können derzeit 32,7% der offenen Stellen der Schweizer Top-Unternehmen nur schwer oder gar nicht besetzt werden. In Österreich sind es 27,6% und in Deutschland 40,7% - Fast zwei Drittel der realisierten Einstellungen gehen bei Großunternehmen in der Schweiz, Österreich und Deutschland inzwischen auf eine Stellenanzeige im Internet zurück, und auch die Mehrzahl der eingehenden Bewerbungen ist elektronisch. - Es herrscht große Unsicherheit über die Bedeutung von Social Media. Trotz des großen Interesses ist die Nutzung von Web 2.0 und der Suchmaschine Google im Tagesgeschäft aber noch sehr zurückhaltend.

Weitzel, T. (2010)
Karriere und Auszeit vom Job - Freund oder Feind
Gentleman's Quarterly (7), S. 79. Online unter: http://www.gq-magazin.de/articles/leben/karriere/sabbatical/2010/07/14/21711/

Weitzel, T. (2010)
Wie das E in E-Recruiting kam
In: Festschrift 10 Jahre monster.de: Wie sieht das Personalmanagement der Zukunft aus?; Gekürzt erschienen in: Personalmagazin (8), 4-7

Schroiff, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Structuring the Structure in Outsourcing Research - A Social Network Perspective on Outsourcing Relationship Management
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru

View Abstract
To what extent are structural assumptions veiled in extant outsourcing research? In this paper we suggest a unified view on social ties between individuals in outsourcing relationships. In a comprehensive literature analysis of outsourcing research since 2001, we identified structural assumptions and categorize them based on social network measures. Our analysis uncovers two salient patterns: 1) The gatekeeper vs. high density trade-off in interaction between client and vendor employees, and 2) the question whether the strength of ties between individuals can be too high for a professional outsourcing relationship. We present these patterns and other social network structures to formalize assumptions mostly not explicated yet considered important in existing outsourcing research. Based on our results, further research should analyze the impact of these patterns of social structure on outsourcing success.

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Impact of Business/IT Social Network Structures on IT Service Quality
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru

View Abstract
In this paper, we explore the basic premise that IT service quality follows the structure of business/IT interactions and thus highlight an important organizational design issue in IT governance. Motivated by concepts used in social network theory we build a model that proposes a causal relationship between structural characteristics of social business/IT networks and IT service quality. The model is empirically evaluated and explained using case studies based on five interviews in three firms. Thus we extend the general assumption that the business/IT partnership is crucial for IT service quality by identifying structural characteristics of the network among and between business and IT staff which enhance this partnership. Important results are that strong and bridging ties at the business/IT interface are crucial for IT service quality and that a good integration of interface actors within their own unit supports IT service quality.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2010)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2010 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2010)
Bewerbungspraxis 2010 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit mehr als 9.000 Stellensuchenden im Internet
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2010)
Recruiting Trends 2010 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Automotive, Finanzdienstleistung und IT
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The performance impact of business process standardization - an empirical evaluation of the recruitment process
Business Process Management Journal (16:1), p. 29-56

View Abstract
Purpose of this paper: This paper aims at showing if business process standardization has an impact on business process performance and should be considered as both a valid BPM measure and a regular driver of process success. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical analysis based on data from 156 firms is used to evaluate the hypothesis that process standardization positively impacts business process time, cost, and quality. Findings: Firstly, the paper proposes a model and empirical operationalization to analyze the impact of process standardization on process performance. Secondly, empirical analysis shows that business process standardization has a decisive impact on process performance (R2: 61.9%). Precisely, there is a significant impact on process time, cost, and most notably on quality. The results indicate that the impact is strongest in services firms and varies subject to a firm's strategy type. Practical implications: The results suggest that business process standardization should regularly be considered a prime action item and major tool in a firm's BPM toolbox. What is original/value of paper: The paper is among the first to empirically show the vital impact of process standardization on performance. For academics and practitioners interested in business process management and the value impact of processes, the results suggest adding process standardization as a regular argument into research on and management of business processes. Keywords: Business process standardization, business process performance, process time, process cost, process quality, staff recruitment.

Münstermann, B., Möderer, P., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Setting up and managing business process standardization: Insights from a case study with a multinational e-commerce firm
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

Moos, B., Beimborn, D., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Suggestions For Measuring Organizational Innovativeness: A Review
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
Innovativeness has emerged as a firm's key nonfinancial goal and as an important measure of organizational performance. But, the different measurement models used in empirical research impede the emergence of a consistent perspective on drivers and consequences of innovativeness. We reviewed 12 major journals from various disciplines and found 56 articles that provide measurement models for innovativeness. Based on reviewing and comparing these measurement models, we derive suggestions for a more comprehensive measure of innovativeness for future research.

Schlosser, F., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Role of Internal Business/IT Alignment and IT Governance for Service Quality in IT Outsourcing Arrangements
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

2009

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Switzerland - An empirical study of the top 500 companies in Switzerland
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg and Goethe-University Frankfurt on the Main

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg et Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main

Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., König, W., Martin, S., Moos, B., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Erfolgreiche Gestaltung partnerschaftlicher Outsourcingbeziehungen: Relationale Faktoren im Outsourcingmanagement der 1.000 größten Banken in Deutschland
Books on Demand, Norderstedt (ISBN 978-3-8391-2901-2). Online unter: http://www.bod.de/index.php?id=296&objk_id=286442

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2009)
A Framework for Recruiting IT Talent: Lessons from Siemens
MIS Quarterly Executive (8:4), p. 123-197

View Abstract
Recruiting and attracting IT talent remains a challenge for IT executives and will once again come to the forefront as the world's economies begin to emerge from recession. As this happens, we expect skills shortages to rise up the IT management agenda, especially as the "baby boomer" generation begins to retire and as the number of computer science graduates reduces. To help IT recruiters face the challenges, we provide a four-quadrant framework that segments recruitment activities on two dimensions - the recruitment timescale and the scarcity of the skills required. Based on the experiences of German industrial giant Siemens, we have identified the recruitment methods that can be applied in each quadrant and provide an indication of their relative costs. We conclude with eight recommendations for improving the recruitment of IT talent in an era when skilled people increasingly expect to be contacted - even wooed - by prospective employers rather actively searching for opportunities themselves.

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
The Impact of Process Standardization on Business Process Outsourcing Success
In: Willcocks, L., Lacity, M. (eds.): Outsourcing Information Systems, Sage Publications, 142-164. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Outsourcing-Information-Systems-Business-Management/dp/1848604459/

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report. Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Kundisch, D., Veit, D., Weitzel, T., and Weinhardt, C. (2009)
Enterprise Applications and Services in the Finance Industry, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing
Springer, Berlin. Online unter: www.springerlink.com/content/978-3-642-01196-2

Wüllenweber, K., König, W., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
The Impact of Process Standardization on Business Process Outsourcing Success
In: R. Hirschheim, A. Heinzl, J. Dibbern (eds.): Information Systems Outsourcing: Enduring Themes, Global Challenges, and Process Opportunities, Springer, Heidelberg, 527-548

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Who influences whom? - Analyzing workplace referents' social influence on IT adoption and non-adoption
Journal of Information Technology (14.1), p. 11-24

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Status Quo and Trends in E-Recruiting - Results from an Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Examining the Relationship Between Trust and Control in IT Outsourcing Relationships
Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Verona, Italy

View Abstract
What is the role of control in maintaining trust in outsourcing relationships? Although the literature is quite rich on conceptualizing the relationship between control and trust in inter-organizational relationships, there exist quite sparse quantitative works which help to evaluate the models developed. In this paper, we analyze data from 156 IT outsourcing relationships of German banks in order to get insights into the actual relationships between different modes of control and the level of relational trust in these relationships. Additionally, we examine the role of service quality (measured in terms of reliability and responsiveness) in this context. The results show that trust is positively related with most modes of control, and that there is indicative evidence that control supports trust in high-service quality situations while it leads to a reduction of trust in relationships suffering from bad service quality (cycle of trust vs. distrust).

Beimborn, D., Moos, B., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
The Role of Client-internal Social Linkages for Outsourcing Success - An SNA Approach
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

View Abstract
What is the role of a firm's internal social relations between business departments and IT unit for the success of its IT outsourcing relationship? In this paper, we propose that the relationship between business and IT of a firm is crucial for achieving effective outsourcing management and for enabling the vendor to deliver the services as demanded. Since the business side of the client firm represents the users of the information systems but the IT unit represents the interface to the outsourcing vendor firm, interaction between both units is proposed to be required for maintaining a good outsourcing relationship. Based on a survey in the German Banking Industry and by adopting a Social Network Analysis Approach which captures the interaction structure within the client firm and thus represents an innovative scale to outsourcing research, we show that tight social linkages within the client firm lead to higher service quality achieved by the vendor firm.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2009 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2009)
Recruiting Trends 2009 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Aerospace, Bildung und Erziehung sowie Transport und Logistik
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Join the standard forces - Examining the combined impact of process and data standards on business process performance
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Proposing a theoretical model for IT governance and IT business alignment
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Online Gaming to Apply for Jobs - the Impact of Self- and E-Assessment on Staff Recruitment
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
The process of recruiting employees has changed since the internet entered enterprises. From simply posting job ads and information on the internet to online application forms and holistic e-recruiting system architectures the way of recruiting has changed a lot. With the introduction of virtual worlds and the increasing number of online games this paper is discussing the next step of e-recruiting: online games to apply for jobs. With a single explorative case study the implementation of self- and e-assessment as online games could be explained. Furthermore with an SEM based on the empirical data of a survey with the Fortune 1,000 companies in Germany (response rate 19.1%) evidence for the motivation of companies to use online games can be provided. Perceived quality improvements, perceived cost savings and perceived time savings as well as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are the most important drivers for companies intending to use online games in staff recruitment.

2008

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Switzerland - An empirical study of the top 500 companies in Switzerland
Research Report, Goethe-University Frankfurt on the Main and Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 500 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main et Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
A Social Linkage View on the Business Value of IT
Proceedings of the 2008 JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

View Abstract
Our research intends to explore whether a social perspective on IT business alignment can help shed light on the IT value creation process by considering different facets of interpersonal linkage. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model which could be discussed at the JAIS workshop. Further, we use some empirical data from 149 US banks in order to find first empirical evidence whether our research focus represents a promising direction. We find initial support for our main hypotheses that communication, cross-domain knowledge and mutuality among and between IT and business staff significantly impact IT usage and business process outcomes. The final results of our research could contribute to our understanding of how the IT resource should be understood and used to measurably contribute to firm goals. The initial findings support the caveat of recent studies suggesting that informal aspects of alignment might be quite notable (e.g. Chan, 2002) and show that our theoretical understanding of alignment should be extended to better incorporate social aspects of daily work life.

Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., Brodnik, B., Gunne, C., Weitzel, T., and Wendt, S. (2008)
Gestaltung partnerschaftlicher Outsourcingbeziehungen - Eine Fallstudienserie zur Beziehungsqualität
Research Report, ibidem, Stuttgart. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Gestaltung-partnerschaftlicher-Outsourcingbeziehungen-Beziehungsqualit%C3%A4t-Finanzdienstleistern/dp/3898219267

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., von Stetten, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Bewerbungspraxis 2009 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden im Internet
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Hire Education For Firms - Successful IT Hires in Five Firms
Proceedings of the 14th SIM Academic Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

Schlosser, F., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
IT Value Creation in Bank Processes
EFL Quarterly (3)

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Lippert, J. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., König, W., and von Westarp, F. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-500-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and Schlosser, F. (2008)
IT Business Alignment
WISU - Das Wirtschaftsstudium

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Recruiting IT Professionals in a Virtual World
Proceedings of the 12th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Suzhou, China

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Reconsidering Subjective Norm - A Multilayer-Framework for Modeling Normative Beliefs in IT Adoption
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, ON, Canada

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Do as your Competitors Do? - Analyzing Competitors' Influence on the Non-Adoption of Information Systems In Organizations
Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Galway, Ireland

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Recruiting Trends im Mittelstand 2008 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem Deutschen Mittelstand
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Veit, D., Kundisch, D., Weitzel, T., Weinhardt, C., Rabhi, F., and Rajola, F. (2008)
Enterprise Applications and Services in the Finance Industry
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing , Vol. 4, 2008, XII, 191 p., Softcover, ISBN: 978-3-540-78549-1 (Available: June 3, 2008). Online unter: http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-3-540-78549-1/

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Extending the Architecture for a Next-Generation Holistic E-Recruiting System
Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Niagara Falls (ON), Canada

Weitzel, T. (2008)
Wertsteigerung durch IT
Managementkompass - Wachstumstreiber Technologie; F.A.Z.-Institut, S. 8-10 (ISBN 9783899819052), Frankfurt

Beimborn, D., Hirschheim, R., Schlosser, F., Schwarz, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
How to Achieve IT Business Alignment? Investigating the Role of Business Process Documentation in US and German Banks
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto (ON) Canada

Beimborn, D., Hirschheim, R., Schlosser, F., Schwarz, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Comparing the Operational Integration of a Core Information System in Insourcing and Outsourcing Firms
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto (ON), Canada

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Network effects as drivers of individual technology adoption: Analyzing adoption and diffusion of mobile communication services
Information Systems Frontiers (10:4), p. 415-429

Münstermann, B. and Weitzel, T. (2008)
What is process standardization?
Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Niagara Falls (ON), Canada

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Drivers and Inhibitors of SOA Business Value - Conceptualizing a Research Model
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, Canada

View Abstract
What is the business value of Service Oriented Architecture? Although the SOA paradigm has become quite evident in IS literature, a comprehensive model of the SOA business value is still lacking. Based on a literature review and on a multitheoretical foundation, drawing on the adoption of innovations literature and on the resource-based view as well as on resource dependency theory, we attempt to develop a research model which captures the business value of SOA, applicable to empirical research in subsequent studies.

Bäuerlein, M., Schlosser, J., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Business Process Outsourcing: Wissenslücken schließen
Bankmagazin 01/08, S. 46-47

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
The impact of process standardization on business process outsourcing success
Information Systems Frontiers (10:2), p. 211-224

View Abstract
What is the impact of business process standardization on BPO success? This paper argues that there is a direct impact of process standardization on BPO success, due to production cost economies, and also an indirect effect via improved contrac-tual and relational governance resulting from better monitoring opportunities and facilitated communication and coordination. This threefold impact of standardization on BPO success is empirically confirmed using data from 335 BPO ventures in 215 German banks.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Recruiting Trends 2008 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland sowie den Top-300-Unternehmen aus den Branchen Energieversorgung, Gesundheit und Wellness sowie Informationstechnologie
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2008)
IT Business Alignment as Governance Tool for Firm-Internal Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Case Study
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Many business processes are relying on a smooth and flexible IT support. A major finding of IS research is that in order to generate value from IT the complementarities between IT and non-IT resources need to be understood and orchestrated. Especially, IT Business Alignment has been found to be a key driver of both, IT value and business process quality. <b>But how to achieve alignment?</b><br><br> We present the results of a longitudinal case study in a globally active firm from the aerospace industry that shows how a new CEO implemented better business processes by increasing alignment. The results show an enhancing relationship between business and IT resources and concretize key findings from the resource based view. Overall, the case contributes by indicating that business value accrues from a simultaneous change of IS and business practices that was enabled by an increase in the level of IT business alignment.

Martin, S., Beimborn, D., Parikh, M., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Organizational Readiness for Business Process Outsourcing: A Model of Determinants and Impact on Outsourcing Success
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

2007

Eckhardt, A., König, W., Weitzel, T., von Stetten, A., and von Westarp, F. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007 Switzerland - An empirical study of the top 1,000 companies in Switzerland
Research Report, Goethe-University Frankfurt on the Main and Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg

Eckhardt, A., König, W., Weitzel, T., von Stetten, A., and von Westarp, F. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007 Suisse - Une étude empirique des 1000 plus grandes entreprises suisses
Rapport de recherche, Université Goethe de Francfort-sur-le-Main et Université Otto-Friedrich de Bamberg

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
What makes successful banks successful? - The key role of alignment in financial process quality
Proceedings of the 2007 SIM Academic Workshop on IT Business Alignment (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Montreal (QC), Canada

Laumer, S. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007
career service papers, Göttingen

Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Trunk, N. (2007)
Bewerbungspraxis 2008 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden im Internet
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Proposing an Instrument for Evaluating the Business Value of Service-Oriented Architectures
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Applications and Services in Finance Industry (FinanceCom) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Montreal (QC), Canada

View Abstract
This paper presents a framework assisting managers in their decision making about introducing a service-oriented architecture (SOA). The benefits, risks and efforts associated with SOA are discussed from a business value perspective. The paper contributes to the literature by suggesting a unified foundation for the debate on the business value of SOA by proposing concrete value drivers and their interrelations.

Wüllenweber, K., Janisch, A., Monsport, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2007)
Governance im Business Process Outsourcing
Books on Demand, Norderstedt (ISBN: 978-3-8370-0851-7)

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Towards an IT production function: understanding routines as fundamental for IT value creation
Journal of Enterprise Information Management (20:4), p. 380-395

View Abstract
The goal of this paper is to identify core IT value drivers in firms and to model them as an IT production function to help disclose and measure the IT value creation process and to guide managers in seeking adequate ways of employing the IT resource. Based on a critical review of the literature on the resource-based view, an IT value framework based on the constructs IT capability, resource, and routine is developed and then formalized as an IT production function. Organizational routines are decisive for turning firm resources into an IT capability and in turn into better business process performance. We show how the IT value creation process in general and routines in particular can be measured and formalized. As the interaction between IT and business units is crucial for IT value generation, organizational routines provide for important knowledge flows that turn firm resources into value generating capabilities. We propose a concrete method to measure and evaluate these routines and thereby contribute to making the IT resource controllable. Our main contribution is the identification and analytical formalization of the role of rou-tines for IT value creation. We show how insights from the resource-based view, micro-economic theory (Cobb-Douglas/CES production function), and Granovetter's strength of ties argument can be used to describe, measure, and guide IT value creation and to develop an IT production function.

Eckhardt, A., König, W., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007 European Union - An empirical survey with the top 1,000 enterprises in the EU
Research Report, Goethe-University Frankfurt on the Main and Otto-Friedrich-University Bamberg

Wüllenweber, K., Janisch, A., Monsport, A., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2007)
Steuerung von Outsourcing-Projekten
Research Report, E-Finance Lab, Frankfurt am Main

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
The Impact of Operational Alignment on IT Flexibility - Empirical Evidence from a Survey in the German Banking Industry
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

View Abstract
Alignment and IT flexibility have been found to be crucial for a firm's long-term success in many indus-tries. This paper investigates how alignment and flexibility are interrelated at an operational level. Based on a survey with Germany's Top 1,000 banks we show on a business process level that shared knowledge and mutual understanding (as dimensions of alignment) between IT unit and business department have a positive impact on IT flexibility. On the other hand, higher degrees of communication between business and IT units do not correlate with higher IT flexibility.

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Business Process Outsourcing: The Challenge of Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Outsourcing of Information Services (ICOIS), Heidelberg

Malinowski, J., Weitzel, T., and Keim, T. (2007)
Decision support for team staffing: An automated relational recommendation approach
Decision Support Systems (DSS) (45:3), p.429-477

View Abstract
Selecting individuals for teams is only rarely supported by Information Systems. Existing systems only consider whether a person has the required technical skills and abilities for a job. Another important aspect is neglected - the match between the person and the team members in terms of interpersonal compatibility. We present a decision support system based on a relational recommendation approach for providing an automated pre-selection of candidates that fit best with future team members. The relational recommender contributes to theory by proposing an IS-supported relational approach to team staffing and to practice by offering time and cost savings for HR professionals.

Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Buschbacher, J. (2007)
How to Convince People who don't Like IT to Use IT - A Case Study On eRecruiting
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

Keim, T. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
The Adoption of HRIS for Personnel Recruitment
In: T. Torres and M. Arias: Encyclopedia of HRIS: Challenges in e-HRM, Idea Group

Martin, S., Beimborn, D., Parikh, M., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Getting ready for success: may alignment be of help?
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

Eckhardt, A., König, W., Weitzel, T., von Stetten, A., and von Westarp, F. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007 Schweiz - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus der Schweiz
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Eckhardt, A., König, W., Weitzel, T., and von Stetten, A. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007 Österreich - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen aus Österreich
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main und Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Eckhardt, A., König, W., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2007)
Recruiting Trends 2007 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland sowie mit Unternehmen aus dem Mittelstand und ausgesuchten Branchen
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
The Influence of Alignment on the Post-Implementation Success of a Core Banking Information System: An Embedded Case Study
Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
The literature suggests that the success of an information system among others depends on its utilization. In this paper, we argue that operational IT business alignment is an important driver of system usage and thereby of the market success of the supported business process. Using an embedded case study in four branches, the back office, and the IT department of a retail bank, many findings of the recent alignment literature can be supported. Using a strict business process perspective, we also offer new insights by showing that alignment is important for IS success in operations as well and positively influences post-implementation IS usage. In particular, mutual understanding between the units and shared domain knowledge not only between IT and business but also between different business units supported by the same core IS turned out to be very important factors of IS usage that have so far been neglected.

Wüllenweber, K. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
An empirical exploration of how process standardization reduces outsourcing risk
Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Are standardized business processes less risky to outsource? Despite the importance of both areas, neither the outsourcing nor standardization literature has so far offered a conclusive picture of the value of standards to outsourcing. We aim to provide an exploratory first step by suggesting that process standards have a positive impact on business process outsourcing (BPO) risk. Theoretically drawing from perceived risk theory and the theory of reasoned action we develop a model of BPO risk and empirically show that indeed risk perception is higher for less standardized processes. Using data from 126 German banks, it turns out that financial and performance risks of BPO significantly differ between high- and low-standardized processes and are consistently higher for less standardized processes. While this work is very exploratory and the findings are quite preliminary, they are very encouraging as they indicate promising further research into the value of standards for business processes and outsourcing.

2006

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Impact of Outsourcing on IT Business Alignment and IT Flexibility: A Survey in the German Banking Industry
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
The ability to outsource IT has been suggested as a major driver of IT productivity. At the same time, the literature on the business value of IT suggests that IT business alignment and IT flexibility are important drivers for the performance of IT. But what is, then, the impact of outsourcing on these key value drivers? In this paper, we empirically show that firms with internal IT exhibit significantly better IT business alignment and IT flexibility.

Wüllenweber, K., Gewald, H., Franke, J., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2006)
Business Process Outsourcing: Eine Nutzen- und Risikoanalyse in der deutschen Bankenbranche
Books on Demand, Norderstedt

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategies to Boost Standard Diffusion in Communication Networks - Insights from Network Effect Theory
Proceedings of the 2006 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milwaukee (WI)

View Abstract
IT standards are subject to network effects which establish challenges concerning a successful diffusion of standards. A renowned example is a mobile service provider trying to establish a network of customers while potential user often wait until the network is sufficiently large in terms of other users (direct network effect) or content available (indirect effect). Despite the potential benefits to adopters and providers, there is still much uncertainty on the differential impact of direct and indirect network effects on the diffusion of standards and their impact on successful diffusion strategies to establish a user base. Our research questions thus are: (a) ...what are the adoption drivers of IT standards and (b) ...how can providers influence these drivers to develop an installed base? Based on network effect theory, we propose a formal model that simultaneously considers the different effects of direct and indirect network effects on the diffusion of communication standards. Using com-puter-based simulations we can show that IT providers could exploit the alternating impact of direct and indirect network effects at different diffusion stages to successfully establish an installed base. This has fundamental implications for the provider's pricing and market strategy.

Eckhardt, A., König, W., Keim, T., Weitzel, T., Villa, D., and von Westarp, F. (2006)
Bewerbungspraxis 2007 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 11.000 Stellensuchenden im Internet
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Franke, J., König, W., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Industrialisierung von Finanzprozessen: Herausforderungen, Chancen, Vorgehensmodell
Zeitschrift für Controlling & Management (ZfCM)

Weitzel, T. (2006)
A Business Process Perspective on the IS Resource: Outsourcing, IT Business Alignment, and IS Business Value
Institute of Information Systems, Goethe University

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Gomber, P., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Die Bedeutung des Alignments von IT und Fachressourcen in Finanzprozessen: Eine empirische Untersuchung
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (48:5), p. 331-339

View Abstract
Wie kann die Ressource IT wertschaffend eingesetzt werden? Auf der theoretischen Grundlage des Resource-based View of IT sowie der Alignment-Literatur argumentieren wir, dass die tatsächliche Nutzung der IT sowie das Zusammenspiel zwischen IT und Fachabteilungen grundlegend für die Leistung von IT-intensiven Geschäftsprozessen sind. Das entwickelte Wirkmodell wird in einer Studie unter den 1.000 größten Banken Deutschlands empirisch untersucht. Es zeigt sich, dass die Leistung des untersuchten Geschäftsprozesses, wie hypothetisiert, stark von einem Alignment zwischen der IT- und der Geschäftsdomäne abhängt. Ebenso wird deutlich, dass ein bestimmtes Ausmaß fachlicher Ressourcen entscheidend ist und auch eine herausragende IT-Ausstattung und -Unterstützung keine Mängel hinsichtlich dieser fachlichen Ressourcen ausgleichen kann. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen damit wichtige Einsichten der Literatur zu Alignment auch auf Prozessebene und zeigen im Gegensatz zu bestehender Literatur theoretisch wie empirisch, dass der Wertbeitrag der IT nicht ohne Berücksichtigung der Nicht-IT-Fachkompetenz untersucht werden kann.

Franke, J. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategisches Sourcing im KMU-Kreditgeschäft
Zeitschrift für das gesamte Kreditwesen, Fritz Knapp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main

Gewald, H., Wüllenweber, K., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Influence of Perceived Risks on Banking Managers' Intention to Outsource Business Processes - A Study of the German Banking and Finance Industry
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (7:2), p. 78-96

View Abstract
Information Technology (IT) is a key productive factor in the banking and finance industry (BFI) as almost the entire production and delivery of services can in principle be digitized. Driven by cost pressure and new competitors, outsourcing IT together with the relevant business processes is a promising way to focus on core competencies and to restructure the corporate value chain. While there is a rich literature on the risks and benefits of IT outsourcing, little is known about the next step of business process outsourcing (BPO) and especially the associated risks. Our main hypothesis is that the perceived risks associated with BPO strongly influence the intention of managers to outsource business processes. Based on an empirical survey of BFI managers covering 90% of the cumulated German BFI balance sheet, it is shown that perceived risk does indeed have a significant impact on managers' attitudes towards BPO and that these attitudes strongly influence the outsourcing decision. Financial risks turn out to be a major risk facet, exerting pressure on banks which decide solely in terms of potential cost savings. In addition, the high importance of performance risk requires banks to invest in sophisticated vendor management.

Franke, J. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Business Process Outsourcing in the Financial Chain
The Finance Director, 12.April 2006, SPG Media Limited

View Abstract
Only 6.1% of CFOs of large firms are fully content with their financial chain. Still, financial chain outsourcing is quite rare. Tim Weitzel and Jochen Franke present empirical findings of a large survey with Germany's top 1,000 firms on what CFOs think about their financial processes and financial chain outsourcing. Also, a CFO's personal experience with outsourcing turns out to be a firm internal cultural challenge for outsourcing.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Operational IT Business Alignment as the Missing Link from IT Strategy to Firm Success
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
Strategic alignment deals with the capability of IT to both shape and support business strategy. It can be interpreted as an organizational learning process that combines business and IT knowledge to support business objectives and can positively affect organizational profitability by creating superior strategies that achieve a competitive advantage. These strategies have to be implemented, because strategies are only effective when they are translated into actions readily. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the concept of operational IT business alignment, reflecting the functional integration at the structural level and representing the link between business and IT structure. Using structural equation modeling and data from 136 banks we show that operational IT business alignment positively impacts dynamic IT and business capabilities and in turn strategic alignment and firm performance.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Social Interaction as Constituting Element of Routines: Incorporating Social Network Analysis into IS research
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
Organizational routines known from the Resource-based View (RBV) are considered elementary for IT value creation as they determine the efficiency with which firms transform inputs to outputs. As routines are socially complex patterns of inter-action, we incorporate findings from the literature on the Resource-based view and Social Network Analysis to disclose the social formation of organizational routines as a constituting element. Our model extends the central findings of the RBV by considering the impact of the social embeddedness of a firm's employees using Granovetter's strength of ties argument. The proposed model can be used for a sensitivity analysis regarding the impact of different interaction patterns between and among organizational units on business process performance. The model provides good support for the effects cited in the literature and is illustrated by a case.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategy Matters - The Role of Strategy Type for IT Business Value
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
There is a general consensus among practitioners and researchers alike that IT business alignment improves business performance. Alignment mostly is researched at a strategic level, but has to be implemented in daily operations to be effective. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the concept of operational IT business alignment, reflecting the functional integration at the structural level and representing the linkage between business and IT structure. Using structural equation modeling and data from 136 banks we show that operational IT business alignment positively impacts IS usage and IT flexibility and in turn process performance. Furthermore it is shown that the effect of IT business alignment strongly depends on the type of business strategy a bank follows.

Keim, T. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategies for Hiring IT Professionals: An Empirical Analysis of Employer and Job Seeker Behavior on the IT Labor market
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

Son, S., Gladyszewski, T., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Value of Management Control in IT Organizations
Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Göteborg, Sweden

Keim, T., König, W., Weitzel, T., and von Westarp, F. (2006)
Bewerbungs- und Recruiting-Trends in der Finanzbranche - Aktuelle Ergebnisse empirischer Studien
Growing Talents! Herausforderungen des HR-Managements in der Finanzindustrie (Tagungsband zur gleichnamigen Konferenz am 5. April 2006 in Frankfurt am Main), Frankfurt am Main

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2006)
Network Effects and Diffusion Theory - Extending Economic Network Analysis
Jakobs, K. (ed.): Advanced Topics in Information Technology Standards and Standardization Research, Volume 1, Hershey, PA, ISBN 159140939-X. Erhältlich unter: http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/chapter.aspx?TitleId=4668

Keim, T., König, W., von Westarp, F., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Recruiting Trends 2006 - Eine empirische Untersuchung der Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland und von 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem Mittelstand
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2006)
Examining the Value of Management Control in IT Organizations
Proceedings of the 17th Information Resources Management Association International Conference (IRMA), Washington, D.C.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2006)
Designing a process-oriented framework for IT performance management systems
The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation (8:3), p. 219-228

View Abstract
In recent years, control and governance of internal services such as Information Technology (IT) have become quite critical in organisations due to the enormous size of their expenditure. As a result, managers have faced growing pressure to measure the performance of IT departments. Several concepts have been developed during the last few years such as IT governance, IT scorecards, and benchmarking that have been considered by IT and business execu-tives. But surprisingly, a recent study by the IT Governance Institute (ITGI) that covered 335 CEOs and CIOs in 21 countries, reported while more than 91 percent of executives recognize that information technology (IT) is vital to the success of their businesses, more than two-thirds of CEOs are not comfortable answering questions about governance and control over their IT processes.&ldquo; The study validates that the major problem continues to be &rdquo;the inadequate view of how well IT is performing&ldquo; (ITGI, 2004). Hence, decision-makers and stakeholders within private and public companies are insisting that IT executives provide hard facts on mission and IT performance. As such, a promising performance management system is required: setting performance targets, designing efficiency and effectiveness measure, systematically and accurately measuring outcomes, and then using the results for fact-based decision-making. This paper shows, which concepts and frameworks currently exist to measure the performance of the IT department and its delivered IS services. We discuss how a performance management system might be designed and implemented with the purpose to monitor and improve the IT function within a major financial institution in Europe. Finally, this paper pro-vides lessons learned and some recommendations for further research in the area of IT performance management.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2006)
A Unified Economic Model of Standard Diffusion: The Impact of Standardization Cost, Network Effects and Network Topology
Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) Volume 30, p. 489-514

View Abstract
This paper is motivated by the following question: What drives the diffusion of a communication standard and what diffusion results can we expect? Past literature provides many instructive but mostly unrelated answers. Frequent findings are startup problems, penguin effects, and tendencies towards monopoly. But substantial problems in applying the models to concrete standardization problems reveal that the dynamics are probably more complex. Not all networks are ultimately conquered by a single standard once it has attracted a certain number of users. And not all diffusion results are either complete or no standardization. We address the question of the conditions of particular diffusion behaviors by developing a formal standardization model that captures all fragmented phenomena in a unified approach. Drawing from findings of other research we incorporate the structure of the underlying user network as an important determinant for diffusion behaviors. The approach allows us to disclose varying conditions that generate frequently observed standardization behaviors as special parameter constellations of the model. Using equilibrium analysis and computer simulations we identify a standardization gap that reveals the magnitude of available standardization gains for individuals and the network as a whole. The analysis shows that network topology and density have a strong impact on standard diffusion and that the renowned tendency towards monopoly is far less common. We also report how the model can be used to decide on corporate standardization problems.

Weitzel, T. (2006)
Process governance and optimization for IT Reliant Business Processes: an empirical analysis of financial processes in Germany's Fortune 1,000 non-banks
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
What is the impact of process orientation, analysis and documentation on process quality? In this paper, using financial processes in non-banks ("financial chain") as application domain an optimization framework for IT reliant business process is proposed and empirically evaluated. It is shown that a proper process orientation, documentation and process analysis is a necessary yet often neglected prerequisite for efficiency improvements. The framework can be used for preparing the business case for integration and outsourcing projects. Overall, the results empirically confirm the often neglected claim that you need to explicitly know and measure what you want to optimize.

Malinowski, J., Keim, T., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Matching People and Jobs: A Bilateral Recommendation Approach
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
Recommendation systems are widely used on the Internet to assist customers in finding the products or services that best fit with their individual preferences. While current implementations successfully reduce information overload by generating personalized suggestions when searching for objects such as books or movies, recommendation systems so far cannot be found in another potential field of application: the personalized search for subjects such as applicants in a recruitment scenario. Theory shows that a good match between persons and jobs needs to consider both, the preferences of the recruiter and the preferences of the candidate. Based on this requirement for modeling bilateral selection decisions, we present an approach applying two distinct recommendation systems to the field in order to improve the match between people and jobs. Finally, we present first validation test runs from a student experiment showing promising results.

Beimborn, D. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Game Theoretical Analysis of Cooperative Sourcing Scenarios
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
A possible trend in outsourcing, cooperative sourcing is the merging of similar processes by several firms. For example, several banks could merge their payments processes and the underlying IT to jointly realize economies of scale. But what are conditions of stable outsourcing coalitions? And how to allocate costs within the outsourcing value web? In this paper we present a micro economic model for analyzing cooperative sourcing decisions. Using a game-theoretical equilibrium analysis, distribution rules of cooperative sourcing benefits are evaluated and necessary condition for stable sourcing cooperations are identified. We formally prove that only a proportional allocation of costs will regularly lead to stable coalitions. Still, a game theoretic experiment indicates that deciders not knowing about the results are more likely to choose inefficient allocations leading to instable sourcing networks.

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
IT Business Alignment and IT Usage in Operational Processes: A Retail Banking Case
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
What is the impact of operational (i.e. non-strategic) IT business alignment on IT usage? Using case studies in three branches of a retail bank employing identical information systems, many findings of the alignment literature can be supported. The cases also add new insights by showing that alignment is important in operations as well, and that alignment positively impacts IT usage. Especially mutual understanding between the business units and the IT unit turned out to be the single most important factor of IT usage that resulted from frequent interaction and, as far as the IT unit is concerned, from the business orientation of the IT personnel.

Blumenberg, S., Hinz, D., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
An Integrated Approach to Assess and Communicate IT Risks - Bayesian Belief Networks and Balanced Scorecards Combined
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

View Abstract
Firms face a variety of risks every day. Despite the ubiquity of information technology in a firm's business processes, especially IT risks have received surprisingly little attention. One major challenge is to understand the interplay of many singular possible sources of failure and how they impact compound system risk. A thorough risk assessment thus requires sophisticated methods. But elaborate methods come at the cost of complexity making them unsuitable for top management support. In this paper, an integrated approach to simultaneously address both challenges is proposed. It is shown how causal risk modeling employing Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) and a Risk Balanced Scorecard (BSC) can be used to assess and communicate IT risks, and to simulate the effects of risk mitigation decisions. The integration allows a transparent exchange of values between BSC and BBN to overcome deficiencies in both methods. The complex BBN can be communicated in a condensed way, while the regularly naive cause-and-effect relationships of the BSC can be substantiated by the BBN dependencies.

2005

Weitzel, T. (2005)
Positive Netzeffekte
Zeitschrift der Frankfurter Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft 1.2005, S. 8-9, Frankfurt

Beimborn, D., Martin, S., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Value Chain Crossing - Embedded Financial Services in the SME segment

Wüllenweber, K., Gewald, H., Franke, J., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2005)
Auslagerung von Geschäftsprozessen - Nutzen und Risiken
Research Report, E-Finance Lab, Frankfurt am Main

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of Experience for Outsourcing Evaluation
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (47:6), p. 431-440

View Abstract
How can outsourcing be used to improve financial processes and what role does managers' experience with outsourcing play for outsourcing decisions? An empirical survey with CFOs of Germany's Fortune 1,000 firms (non-banks) reveals that (1) there are substantial efficiency potentials in the financial chain of many firms, (2) outsourcing these secondary processes is still quite rare, and (3) prior outsourcing experience of managers has a strong impact on the evaluation of the competencies of external service providers: an experienced manager is more likely to appreciate the provider's skills, someone without outsourcing experience presumes the higher competencies inhouse.

Keim, T., König, W., Weitzel, T., Fritsch, K., and von Westarp, F. (2005)
Bewerbungspraxis 2006 - Eine empirische Untersuchung mit über 10.000 Stellensuchenden im Internet
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
IT Management in Banks - The Role of Alignment and Usage
EFL-Quarterly 4/2005, Frankfurt am Main

View Abstract
In a case study in the German retail banking business it is shown that alignment between IT and business unit is crucial for the actual usage of IT systems which in turn is a key driver for business process quality. Banks should therefore foster interrelationships between IT and business as well as cross functional work biographies of team leaders.

Wahrenburg, M., König, W., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Gellrich, T., Hackethal, A., Holzh, M., Schwarze, F., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Kreditprozess-Management: Status Quo und Zukunft des Kreditprozesses bei Deutschlands 500 größten Kreditinstituten
Books on Demand , Norderstedt (ISBN: 978-3833431593). Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Kreditprozess-Management-Zukunft-Kreditprozesses-Deutschlands-Kreditinstituten/dp/3833431598

View Abstract
Auf Grundlage einer empirischen Studie des E-Finance Lab mit den größten 519 deutschen Kreditinstituten zeigen die Autoren, dass über die Hälfte der Institute mit den eigenen Kreditprozessen und der Zinsmarge nicht zufrieden ist, ein Drittel den Anteil der gewinnbringenden Kundenbeziehungen nicht kennen, nur 7% den gesamten Kreditprozess durch ein einziges System abwickeln und nur 22% der Institute elektronische Kreditakten haben und Vertriebsmitarbeiter weniger als die Hälfte ihrer Arbeitszeit mit Kunden verbringen. Outsourcing wird dabei als wichtiger Trend gesehen, aktuell indes zurückhaltend betrieben. Im Rahmen der erwarteten Segmentierung der Bankenlandschaft möchten sich neun von zehn Banken auf den Vertrieb spezialisieren. Allerdings sind die Bereitschaft zum Fremdbezug von Leistungen und der Vorbereitungsstand gering. So haben erst 46% der Privatbanken Outsourcing-Optionen bewertet, 31% der Genossenschaftsbanken und nur 22% der Landesbanken/Sparkassen. Das Buch zeigt operationelle Verbesserungspotentiale für alle Teile des Kreditprozesses auf und identifiziert Ansätze für eine bessere Konfiguration der zugrunde liegenden Prozesskette im Spannungsfeld von Eigenerstellung und Outsourcing.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2005)
IT Performance Management - Methodology, Metrics and Application
Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control (EIASM), Nice, France

View Abstract
As many organizations search for ways to compete more effectively in today's ever-growing markets, managers are increasingly focusing on internal services. One internal service function that has especially gained a lot of attention is Information Technology (IT) due to the enormous size of its expenditure. Increasingly, decision authorities within private and public sector companies are insisting that IS executives provide hard facts on IT mission and performance. Key performance indicators, governance structures, and new reference models (e.g. CobiT) are aimed at demonstrating how well the IT department and relating processes perform and improve over time. In this context, IT governance has evolved as a challenge to provide a management control system that aims to annul various frequently found disadvantages of uncoordinated decisions, lack of transparency and insufficient alignment between business and IT goals. Based on a comprehensive analysis of current performance management frameworks, we have designed and deployed an IT management scorecard within a Major European Financial Institution. The paper provides valuable insigths concerning the different implementation steps of IT scorecards and related problems.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2005)
Designing a process-oriented framework for IT performance management systems
Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE), Turku, Finnland

View Abstract
This paper show, which concepts and frameworks currently exist to measure the performance of the IT department and it's delivered, IS services. We discuss how a performance management system might be designed and implemented with the purpose to monitor and improve the IT function. A performance metrics catalogue has been elaborated to document and to enable a common understanding of the individual metrics. Finally, this paper provides lessons learned and some recommendations for further research in the area of IT performance management.

Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of IT Business Alignment for Value Creation: A Multiple Case Study among German Banks
Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Las Vegas (NV)

View Abstract
The ways in which IT creates business value is a key question in IS research and practice. In this paper, we aim to help reveal the role of alignment between IT and business resources in business value creation. In particular, we propose that the contribution of IT to business process performance should be investigated in the context of actual IT usage, with IT business alignment as a moderating variable. Also, IT flexibility should be explicitly considered. Using five case studies from the German financial services industry based on a causal model of IT business value creation reveals that the process of IT business value creation indeed strongly depends on the alignment between business and IT. But it also turns out that actual presence of business competencies is crucial and that even superior IT cannot compensate for business competency deficiencies.

Franke, J. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Outsourcing beim Firmenkredit - ein Trend mit Hindernissen
bank und markt 8/2005, Frankfurt

König, W. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Nicht zufrieden mit der Zinsmarge
Handelsblatt vom 23.03.2005, S. C8

Beck, R. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Some Economics of Vertical Standards: Integrating SMEs in EDI Supply Chains
Electronic Markets (em) (15:4), p. 313-322

View Abstract
Despite the benefits associated with vertical communication standards like EDI or WebEDI, their diffusion among SMEs has failed to a surprising extent. Accordingly, SME integration into value chains is still a critical issue for IS research on standards diffusion. Goal of this contribution is to disclose the reasons for the slow diffusion of EDI and WebEDI among SMEs and to propose concrete solutions. Based on an empirical survey among SMEs in the German office supply industry, economic and technical obstacles to standard diffusion are identified. First, it is shown that EDI and especially WebEDI solutions are simply economically dominated by a widespread practice in SMEs which is using a Fax for business document exchange. Second, as many SMEs do not employ automated material management systems, they lack the necessary technical preconditions for economically viable EDI. Third, based on these findings a concrete EDI solution is delineated that accounts for the economic and technical particularities constraining SMEs. The proposed solution is successfully applied in the office supply industry today and enables SMEs to reap the benefits of bidirectional EDI while avoiding the expensive investments in EDI converter systems that have so far restrained them from participating in vertical standardization.

Malinowski, J., Keim, T., Weitzel, T., and Wendt, O. (2005)
Decision Support for Team Building: Incorporating Trust into a Recommender-Based Approach
Proceedings of the 9th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Bangkok, Thailand

View Abstract
In this paper we present a novel automated recommendation approach to support the selection of individuals to teams. Recent organizational trends show an increasing importance of team-based work structures and more and more companies use this team-focused structure with the hope to increase organizational effectiveness. Whereas traditional selection systems are focused on finding a match between job requirements and individuals' abilities, these systems need to be changed in order to reflect the enhanced requirements when selecting individuals to work in teams. This is important as teamwork requires interaction among its members and not just co-action. Our approach is therefore based on two dimensions. First, people need to be matched to jobs for which they possess the right knowledge, skills and abilities to fulfill all tasks. Second, people need to fit with the other people they are supposed to work with in terms of interpersonal compatibility. Based on an adapted probabilistic latent aspect model and a trust computational model we present a first prototype aiming to support the systematic selection of individuals to form effective teams.

Malinowski, J., Keim, T., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Analyzing the Impact of IS Support on Recruitment Processes: An E-Recruitment Phase Model
Proceedings of the 9th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Bangkok, Thailand

View Abstract
The skills and abilities of a company's employees are a prerequisite for the enterprise to be innovative. In case the know-how needed to accomplish certain tasks is not available internally or cannot be developed within reasonable time, the company needs to address to the external labor market, e.g. by recruiting experts possessing the skill sets required. However, for rare candidate profiles there exists intense competition on the labor market. Thus, the ability to act within short periods of time when interacting with candidates becomes crucial. In the past, multiple elements of IS support provided many different benefits to improve the recruitment process. However, little research to date exists on what forms of IS support are adapted for what application scenarios within the recruitment arena. Therefore, this paper analyzes how the recruitment process can be optimized and what different levels of E-Recruitment adoption can be identified. We present results from quantitative and qualitative research showing that E-Recruitment functionality can be found in most companies nowadays ranging from isolated solutions for singular activities to integrated end-to-end solutions. Based on these findings we derive managerial guidelines for the management of projects in the E-Recruitment field.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Drivers and Inhibitors for Outsourcing Financial Processes - A Comparative Survey of Economies of Scale, Scope, and Skill
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

View Abstract
Economies of scale, scope, and skill are known to be major drivers or inhibitors for outsourcing business processes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of economies of scale, scope, and skill achievable by outsourcing financial processes in non-banks and banks based on two empirical studies conducted with Fortune 1,000 non-banks and Fortune 500 banks in Germany. It can be shown that industrialization tendencies within the credit business in banks are in parts broader sophisticated than within financial processes of other industries. Credit process managers estimate economies of scale and skill achievable by outsourcing to be higher than chief financial officers do. Furthermore, economies of scope, which inhibit selective sourcing, are evaluated as being less problematic. As a result, the credit process managers' disposition to outsource (parts of) primary financial processes in banks is higher compared to the CFOs' attendance to outsource parts of their secondary financial processes in non-banks. In accordance with common knowledge, economies of scale and skill are identified as drivers for outsourcing business processes while economies of scope represent an inhibitor. In contrast to common knowledge, our studies suggest German banks being on the way to industrialization and modularization.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The role of alignment for strategic information systems: extending the resource-based perspective of IT
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

View Abstract
The importance of strategic information systems in the financial industry is documented in many studies. But still there is a virulent lack of frameworks to explain the profit impact of IT in general and to guide firms in exploiting the IT resource as a source of competitive advantage. By incorporating findings from different research strands on the resource based view (RBV) and the strategic alignment literature we elaborate key concepts potentially leading to a sustained competitive advantage. These concepts are explicitly modeled and integrated into a financial services production function using the well-developed instruments of microeconomic theory. Especially interactions between the IT and business domain are found to be a key success driver. Supported by four case studies from the financial services industry it is shown how IT business alignment positively impacts process quality and in turn establishes a competitive advantage. Our findings suggest that the exploitation of strategic information systems in the sense of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage requires establishing an organizational routine of cross-departmental interaction.

Keim, T., Malinowski, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Bridging the Assimilation Gap: A User-Centered Approach to IT-Adoption in Corporate HR Processes
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

König, W., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Sourcing von Finanzprozessen - Ein Modell zur simultanen Bewertung von Economies of Scale und Scope
Proceedings of the 7. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Bamberg

View Abstract
Während viele Unternehmen Fortschritte in der IuK-Technologie zur Automatisierung ihrer primären Prozesse, zu einer internen und externen Vernetzung und letztlich zur Neuaufteilung und Optimierung der gesamten Wertschöpfungskette genutzt haben, wurden Sekundärprozesse selten als eigener Optimierungsgegenstand betrachtet. In einer empirischen Studie zu sekundären Finanzprozessen in den 1.000 größten deutschen Unternehmen (ohne Banken und Versicherungen) wird gezeigt, dass vor einer Outsourcing-Entscheidung kulturelle Hürden der Entscheider zu überwinden sind. Es zeigt sich insbesondere, dass die individuelle Outsourcing-Erfahrung der entscheidenden Manager von Bedeutung ist und dass Economies of Scale und Scope getrennt betrachtet und damit mögliche Trade-offs häufig ignoriert werden. Zur Erweiterung der reinen Outsourcing-Entscheidung im Hinblick auf viel versprechende Modelle des kooperativen Outsourcing wird untersucht, wer geeignete Partner für eine selektive Auslagerung von Teilprozessen durch eine Kreuzung der eigenen Wertschöpfungskette mit derjenigen des Partners (Value Chain Crossing) sein können. Aufbauend auf diesen empirischen Ergebnissen wird ein Simulationsmodell vorgestellt, welches insbesondere die simultane Betrachtung verschiedener Einflussfaktoren der Outsourcing-Entscheidung erlaubt.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Impact of IT On Competitive Advantage: A microeconomic approach to making the resource-based view explicit
Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Regensburg

View Abstract
How can an organization establish an efficient IS resource? Over the years, the resource-based view (RBV) has provided important insights into the value creation by IT. Unfortunately, large parts of the literature suffer from broad and ambiguous constructs that are problematic to validate and difficult to concretely apply. Furthermore, the transmission from IT resources on one side to competitive advan-tage on the other is not yet sufficiently understood. Goal of this paper is to clarify some of the often used constructs and build a framework for the transmission from the endowment with resources to the achievement of competitive advantage. In this paper, we aim to contribute to this research strand in two ways. First, a model incorporating many isolated findings from the RBV is developed. Reflecting the need for a process view as proposed by large parts of the alignment and strategic management literature, this is integrated into a single process framework of analysis. Second, by developing a microeconomic IT service production function incorporating organizational routines the transmission from IT resource to better business process performance is explicated, allowing simultaneous parameter sensitivity analysis and contributing to making the RBV applicable and open for empirical research.

König, W. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Towards the E-Enterprise: standards, networks, and co-operation strategies
Kuhlin, B./Thielmann, H. (eds.): The Practical Real Time Enterprise, Springer, Berlin. Online unter: http://www.springerlink.com/content/kj2584106546885g/

König, W. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Ökonomische Analyse von Netzeffekten
In: Peter Gendolla, Jörgen Schäfer (Hg.): Wissensprozesse in der Netzwerkgesellschaft; transcript Verlag, S. 191-218. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Wissensprozesse-Netzwerkgesellschaft-Peter-Gendolla/dp/3899422767/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1299161856&sr=8-1

Keim, T., König, W., von Westarp, F., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Recruiting Trends 2005 - Eine empirische Untersuchung der Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland und von 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem Mittelstand
Frankfurt am Main

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2005)
Die Evolutionsschritte zum E-Enterprise: Standardisierung, Vernetzung und Kooperationsstrategien
Kuhlin, B./Thielmann, H. (Hrsg.): Real Time Enterprise in der Praxis, Springer, Berlin. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Real-Time-Enterprise-Praxis-Ausblick/dp/3540219080

View Abstract
Moderne netzwerkartige Unternehmensformen von Supply Webs über flexible Unternehmensallianzen bis hin zu letztlich völlig dezentralen und hochmodularen Dienstearchitekturen als Grundlage für Ad-hoc-Supply-Chains oder ein "Real Time Enterprise" erfordern eine gezielte Vernetzung zwischen einer Vielzahl von Akteuren zur systematischen Ausbeutung von Skaleneffekten. Dabei gibt es netzwerkspezifische Koordinationsprobleme, die aus der Existenz von Netzeffekten resultieren und besondere Anforderungen an eine schlagkräftige IT-Governance stellen. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass die Philosophie des "Real Time Enterprise" technische und kulturelle Herausforderungen an die Unternehmensführung stellt. Eine ökonomische Analyse von Vernetzungsgleichgewichten am Beispiel Straight Through Processing im grenzüberschreitenden Wertpapierhandel verdeutlicht, welche Herausforderungen Vernetzungsprozesse mit sich bringen. Computersimulationen zeigen vielversprechende Resultate bezüglich der Lösbarkeit "klassischer" Netzwerkprobleme wie insbesondere des Start-up-Problems und unterstreichen den Wert moderner Strategien wie insbesondere der Coopetition.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Modeling the Impact of Alignment Routines on IT Performance: An Approach to Making the Resource based View Explicit
Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
This paper investigates the link between IT and firm performance by combining different theoretical perspectives and emphasizing the role of routines in IT-Business alignment. The basic concept of routines is operationalized and presented in an algebraic form allowing for explicit modeling and using of findings from the literature on the resource based view (RBV) and IT-Business alignment. How to use IT to gain a sustainable competitive advantage and in turn a plus in firm performance is a key question in IS research. This paper examines the RBV and alignment literature and elaborates the importance of routines in both perspectives. The results show routines are a basic underlying concept to understand the linkage between IT resources and firm performance. This basic concept is operationalized showing the functional relationships known from literature. The paper therefore advances theory and informs practice by combining different theoretical perspectives and making them explicit.

Keim, T. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
An Integrated Framework for Online Partnership-Building
Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Research in information sciences in recent years has dealt with how to support collaborative work across time, space and organizational boundaries. However, this research neglected the question of how information systems can contribute right at the beginning of virtual work in the design phase of the team. Team configuration can be modeled as a two-dimensional matching problem: individuals need to be brought together (1) with tasks for which they posses the competencies to carry them out and (2) with other individuals with whom they are able to collaborate successfully. It is understood that multiple dimensions of human as well as social capital and here especially of trust play an important role in the underlying decision process. Based on existing research in multiple fields we develop a framework permitting to establish successful virtual partnership. We present an implementation of this framework together with first promising validation results of the approach chosen.

2004

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Alignment and Routines - Refining the integrative Model of Melville, Kraemer, and Gurbaxani

Weitzel, T., König, W., and Busse, R. (2004)
Beiträge zur Industrialisierung von Finanzprozessen durch Web Services - Externes Straight Through Processing für Master-KAGen
Information Management & Consulting 19 (Sonderausgabe), S. 64-72

View Abstract
Zunehmender Kostendruck sowie Liberalisierungen in der Finanzwelt wie insbesondere das Zulassen der Auslagerung von Dienstleistungen für Kreditinstitute durch das BaFin haben Outsourcing erneut zu einer zentralen CIO-Aufgabe gemacht. Für institutionelle Anleger bedeutet dies neue Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten und hat die Master-Kapitalanlagegesellschaft (Master-KAG) zu einem der spannendsten Trends im Asset Management gemacht. Doch vor der Realisierung der mit dem Aufbrechen und Neugestaltung der Finanzwertkette verbundenen Potenziale ist die Herausforderung zu meistern, die komplexen Interaktionen zwischen allen Beteiligten durch flexible und effiziente IuK-Architekturen zu unterstützen und damit eine nachhaltige Wettbewerbsposition in diesem schwierigen Wachstumsmarkt aufzubauen. In diesem Beitrag werden nach einer kurzen Einführung in das Master-KAG-Konzept zunächst betriebswirtschaftliche und technische Herausforderungen wie z. B. STP-Fähigkeit (Straight Through Processing) diskutiert und konkrete Lösungsanforderungen abgeleitet. Anhand einer Fallstudie mit der Allianz Dresdner Asset Management, Spezialfonds-Marktführer mit 12,5 Mrd. Master-KAG-Fondsvermögen, wird eine konkrete web-service-basierte Umsetzung vorgestellt. Insbesondere durch die mit Web Services einhergehende Möglichkeit, unterschiedliche Beteiligte sehr einfach in einen gemeinsamen Prozess einzubinden kann analog zu früheren Erfahrungen mit EDI im Supply Chain Management ein Beitrag zu einer Industrialisierung von Finanzprozessen erfolgen.

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2004)
Arbeitsteilung statt Alleingang: Die Industrialisierung der Finanzprozesse
SAP INFO Banken und Versicherungen, Ausgabe 10. Sept. 2004, S. 10-11

Skiera, B., König, W., Gensler, S., Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., Blumenberg, S., Franke, J., and Pfaff, D. (2004)
Financial Chain Management - Prozessanalyse, Effizienzpotenziale und Outsourcing
Books on Demand, Norderstedt. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Financial-Chain-Management-Prozessanalyse-Effizienzpotenziale/dp/3833413409

View Abstract
Einer Umfrage unter den Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland (ohne Banken) zufolge verbrauchen die Finanzprozesse in vielen Unternehmen ein Viertel der IT-Bufgets und bieten als typischer Sekundärprozess erhebliches Optimierungspotenzial. Die Autoren entwickeln eine empirisch fundierte generische Financial Chain und identifizieren Ansatzpunkte für Verbesserungen durch ein systematisches Financial Chain Management. Tatsächlich sind die Verbesseungspotenziale durch interne und externe Vernetzung erheblich. So wickeln zwei Drittel der Unternehmen den Versand ihrer bis zu 4 Millionen Rechnungen jeden Monat über die Post ab. Dabei liegen die Kosten je Rechnung bei durchschnittlich 15,5 EUR, im Gegensatz zu 2 EUR beim elektronischen Rechnungsversand. Die empirische Untersuchung sowie Fallstudien zeigen Verbesserungspotenziale in der Financial Chain, Einsparungen durch Shared Service Factories und Outsourcing, Wege zu einem Straight Through Processing sowie Ansätze zur Reduktion der Rechnungs- und Reklamationskosten.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and Franke, J. (2004)
Outsourcing the Financial Chain: an Empirical Analysis of Sourcing and Partnering Potentials
Proceedings of the 10th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), New York (NY)
Best Paper Award/Best Outsourcing Paper

View Abstract
While many firms have used advancement in information and communication technology to optimize their supply chain and primary processes, there is still a substantial efficiency potential associated with financial processes. In this paper, a conceptual framework for a systematic financial chain management is developed. Based on this, an empirical survey with the Fortune 1,000 enterprises of Germany shows that while outsourcing of the financial chain is still quite rare it can be successfully used to focus on core competencies. A main finding is that CFOs tend to systematically overestimate the quality of their financial processes and especially the firm's competencies compared to external experts. This is an important cultural barrier to a value redesign that could offer substantial efficiency improvements.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2004)
Outsourcing von Finanzprozessen
Management-Kompass IT-Strategie F.A.Z.-Institut , S. 12-17

View Abstract
Eine empirische Studie des Frankfurter E-Finance Lab zeigt, wie Unternehmen unterschiedlicher Branchen durch modernes Financial Chain Management ihre IT-Finanzprozesse effizient gestalten. Weitere Beiträge analysieren die Kosteneffekte durch IT-Transformation, Sourcingalternativen und IT-Investitionen im Mittelstand.

Lammers, M., L, N., and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Strategic Sourcing in Banking - A Framework
Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Turku, Finnland

View Abstract
The banking landscape in Europe and Germany has a polypolistic market structure with an average vertical range of integration of 80%, implying high process redundancies. Accumulating processes for standardized products is one way to achieve efficiency improvements. "Smart sourcing" can change the production mix of banks lead to a concentration of processes. A challenge is the lack of consistent frameworks for the banking industry to systematically support the sourcing decision process. In this paper, drawing on the resource based view and transaction cost economics it is shown that, in addition to a make or buy decision, co-operation between competitors should be included into a sourcing analysis as the third alternative. To support the decision on making, buying or sharing an activity, a quantitative analysis of each activity of the banking value chain is necessary. We propose an analysis framework based on a generic banking value chain. Since the recent literature mostly focuses only on the outsourcers' case, a formalized model is developed to consider both the objective function of the out- and the insourcer. Since the market might restrict sourcing options, as there may be no providers of relevant activities, it can be shown that &rdquo;sharing&ldquo; as part of a co-opetition concept instead of buy or make can be a way to break up the value chain. The framework thus supports decision makers to approach an optimal degree of vertical integration for both market sides.

Pfaff, D., Skiera, B., and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Financial-Chain-Management: Ein generisches Modell zur Identifikation von Verbesserungspotenzialen
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (46:2), p. 107-117

Weitzel, T. (2004)
Economics of Standards in Information Networks
Springer Physica. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Economics-Standards-Information-Networks-Economy/dp/product-description/3790800767, New York

View Abstract
Standards play a prominent role in systems characterized by interaction. In information systems, standards provide for compatibility and are a prerequisite for collaboration benefits. More generally speaking, standards constitute networks. In this work, a standardization framework based on an analysis of deficiencies of network effect theory and a game theoretic network equilibrium analysis is developed. Fundamental determinants of diffusion processes in networks (e.g. network topology, agent size, installed base) are identified and incorporated into a computer-based simulation model. As a result, typical network behaviour (specific diffusion patterns) can be explained and many findings from traditional network effect theory can be described as special cases of the model at particular parameter constellations (e.g. low price, high density). On this basis, solution strategies for standardization problems are developed, and a methodological path towards a unified theory of networks is proposed.

Keim, T., König, W., Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., and von Westarp, F. (2004)
Recruiting Trends 2004 - Eine empirische Untersuchung der Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland und von 1.000 Unternehmen aus dem Mittelstand
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

2003

Färber, F., Keim, T., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
An Automated Recommendation Approach to Personnel Selection
Proceedings of the 9th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Tampa (FL)

Weitzel, T. (2003)
A Network ROI
Proceedings of the 2003 MISQ Academic Workshop on ICT Standardization (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
In this paper, a method for determining the equilibrium under which firms will cooperate concerning their standardization decisions is developed. From a theoretical perspective, the network ROI concept is aimed at synchronizing local and global efficiency disturbed by network effects by explicitly determining the value impact of standardization and using it for optimizing enterprise internal decisions concerning standards (i.e. internalizing network effects). From a managerial perspective, ROI based methods are reasonably simple and especially widely accepted. Since the costs of solution determination are considered (by a &rdquo;virtual instance&ldquo;), the concept might be applied by a cost center unit responsible for standardization. Methodologically, the solution is developed using basic game theory to understand the discrepancy between local and global efficiency in standardization decisions and later applied to a network of six enterprises as part of an extensive case study.

Beimborn, D. and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Web Services und Service-orientierte IT-Architekturen
Das Wirtschaftsstudium 11/2003, S. 1360-1364

Beck, R., Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
The Network Effect Helix
Proceedings of the 2003 MISQ Academic Workshop on ICT Standardization (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seattle (WA)

Pfaff, D., Skiera, B., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Datenintegration in Finanzprozessen
Bonner Köllen Verlag (ISBN 3-88579-363-6)

View Abstract
Die Philosophie des Supply-Chain-Management (SCM) hat durch eine Orchestrierung der Güter-, Finanz- und Informationsflüsse Effizienzpotenziale erschließen können. Während traditionelles SCM erfolgreich vor allem auf die Güter- und Informationslogistik fokussiert, finden sich bei Finanzprozessen noch ungenutzte Potenziale. Dieser Beitrag zeigt auf Grundlage einer empirischen Untersuchung die Integrationsproblematik in der Financial-Chain (FC) bei deutschen Top-1.000-Unternehmen auf. Nicht ausreichend integrierte Systeme sind der Hauptgrund für Rechnungsreklamationen und damit ein vermeidbarer Hauptkostentreiber. Hierauf aufbauend wird skizziert, wie eine skalierbare bedarfsgerechte Integration im Rahmen eines XML-Warehouse realisiert werden kann.

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2003)
Zwischenbetriebliche Kooperationen und elektronische Märkte
in: Küting. K./Noack, H. (Hrsg.) (2003): Der große BWL-Führer - die 50 wichtigsten Strategien und Instrumente zur Unternehmensführung; F.A.Z.-Institut, Frankfurt (ISBN 3-89843-085-5). Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/BWL-Fuehrer-wichtigsten-Strategien-Instrumente-Unternehmensfuehrung/dp/3898430855/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1299163175&sr=8-1

König, W. and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Netzeffekte im E-Business
Proceedings of the 6. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Dresden

View Abstract
Eine grundlegende Fragestellung im E-Business liegt in der geeigneten Vernetzung verschiedener Akteure. Dabei gibt es netzwerkspezifische Koordinationsprobleme, die aus der Existenz von Netzeffekten resultieren. Gegenstand dieses Beitrages ist eine ökonomische Analyse der Existenz und Effizienz von Gleichgewichten in Kooperationsnetzen. Computersimulationen zeigen vielversprechende Resultate bezüglich der prinzipiellen Lösbarkeit "klassischer" Netzwerkprobleme wie insbesondere des Start-up-Problems.

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2003)
Computational Economics als wirtschaftsinformatischer Beitrag zu einer interdisziplinären Netzwerktheorie
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (45:5), p. 497-502

View Abstract
In Informationsnetzen wie Intranets, Supply Chains oder EDI-Netzwerken stellen Standards Kompatibilität her und sind damit Grundlage der Realisierung von Kooperationsvorteilen. Standards konstituieren Netzwerke. Entsprechend bilden Entscheidungen über den Einsatz von Standards einen wichtigen Aufgabenbereich des betrieblichen Informationsmanagements. In diesem Beitrag wird argumentiert, dass die Entwicklung einer hierfür anwendbaren, umfassenden Netzwerktheorie als eine Kernaufgabe der Wirtschaftsinformatik angesehen wird. Ein vielversprechender Rahmen wird in der Erweiterung eines grundsätzlich ökonomisch (nutzen- und gleichgewichtstheoretisch) fundierten Vorgehens um interdisziplinäre Beiträge wie z. B. aus der Soziologie sowie um das Forschungsparadigma der Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) gesehen. Damit können insbesondere die institutionelle Einbettung der sozioökonomischen Netzwerkakteure sowie beschränkte Akteursrationalität und damit die komplexen gegenseitigen Abhängigkeiten von Mikro- (Akteur) und Makrostruktur (Netz) berücksichtigt werden.

Weitzel, T. (2003)
Standardisierung und Standards
Taschenbuch der Wirtschaftsinformatik und Wirtschaftsmathematik, Frankfurt am Main (2.Auflage)

Weitzel, T. (2003)
Die Messlatte: Electronic Business XML-Framework f
XML & Web Services Magazin 4/2003

Weitzel, T., Tesch, T., and Fankhauser, P. (2003)
A scalable approach to processing large XML data volumes
Proceedings of the 9th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Tampa (FL)

View Abstract
The emerging penetration of IT architectures with XML leads to increasing XML data volumes. Available tools often fail in realizing scalable XML processing for large XML data volumes. This paper introduces Infonyte-DB, a persistent XML Processor that economizes on system resources and allows processing large XML data volumes. Based on concrete application scenarios it is illustrated how Infonyte-DB can be deployed for XML based web services, technical documentation, and mobile information management.

Weitzel, T., Gellings, C., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
IS Valuation Methods - Insights from Capital Markets Theory and Practice
Proceedings of the 7th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Adelaide, Australia

View Abstract
In this paper, an analogy between IT firm valuation and IS valuation is used to learn from how investment banking professionals cope with the renowned valuation problem. It becomes clear that theoretically sound approaches like the discounted cash flow might be inappropriate to determine the true value of a software company. Especially for IT valuation, real options approaches are a promising way of capturing the &rdquo;true&ldquo; underlying value to new technologies. Unfortunately, as expert interviews reveal, the importance of this approach in investment banking practice is negligible.

Färber, F., Keim, T., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
A Model-based Approach to Recommending Partners
Proceedings of the 6. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Dresden

View Abstract
Searching for and selecting qualified partners is a core task in many business contexts. Empirical research among Germany's top 1,000 firms discloses that internet-based platforms are effectively used as a personnel marketing channel but cannot increase the matching quality between jobs and candidates. Using erecruitment as an example, we show how the matching quality can be substantially improved by means of a probabilistic latent aspect model developed in this paper. The underlying method incorporates findings from collaborative filtering and hybrid approaches to automated recommendation and is based on a model of personal attributes derived from research on team building and work psychology.

Mintert, S. and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Kurzcode UTF-9
iX, Magazin für professionelle Informationstechnik, S. 31

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., and König, W. (2003)
Towards an Interdisciplinary Theory of Networks
Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Naples, Italy

View Abstract
Research problems in ICT networks often comprise coordination problems of information infrastructures and require state-of-the-art methods of coping with complex system dynamics. Especially, relevant economic network analysis is increasingly challenged to transcend "reductionist economic agendas" and incorporate findings from other disciplines. Recent trends of trying to bridge existing theoretical gaps in disciplinary research approaches by integrating the findings of other scientific disciplines reinforce the role of IS in establishing a sound theory of (social, economic) networks. Based upon efforts towards extending an economic view on networks, in this paper the paradigm of agent-based computational economics is proposed as a possible methodological path towards developing a unified perspective on network research.

Tesch, T., Fankhauser, P., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Skalierbare Verarbeitung von XML mit Infonyte-DB
Proceedings of the 10. GI-Fachtagung Datenbanksysteme für Business, Technologie und Web (BTW), Leipzig

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., von Westarp, F., and König, W. (2003)
Network Effects and Diffusion Theory - Extending Economic Network Analysis
International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research (IJITSR) ,

View Abstract
In this paper, some of the main results of an interdisciplinary research project on standards are presented and integrated into a single framework of technology diffusion. Based on network effect theory and diffusion theory, we present an agent-based simulation model that extends the traditional economical network perspective by incorporating structural determinants of networks (centrality, topology/density) from sociology and geography and individual decision making on the part of prospective technology users under realistic informational assumptions. Based upon these models, decision behavior in terms of the selection of standards and the diffusion of technological innovations in networks can be described. The model has so far served as both, a tool for developing and evaluating network strategies in practical application like EDI networks or corporate directory service planning as well as for providing theoretical insights into standardization problems and possible solutions.

Weitzel, T., Martin, S., and König, W. (2003)
Straight Through Processing auf XML-Basis im Wertpapiergeschäft
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (45:4), p. 409-420

View Abstract
Ineffiziente Abwicklungsprozesse, die weltweite Beschleunigung der Abwicklungsgeschwindigkeit sowie steigende Transaktionsvolumina machen eine umfassendere Automatisierung des grenzübergreifenden Wertpapiergeschäfts erforderlich. Verschiedene Standards, meist auf der Grundlage von XML, buhlen um die Rolle als globaler bankenweiter Kommunikationsstandard. Das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrages ist die Analyse des Status Quo des XML-Einsatzes innerhalb und zwischen Banken sowie der Bedeutung und Akzeptanz der Initiativen zur Entwicklung und Etablierung branchenweiter Standards für ein straight through processing. FpML, FIX, SWIFT und ISO 15022 werden als die bedeutendsten Standards angesehen. Viele Banken sehen bei der XML-Verwendung derzeit noch Probleme in der Dokumentengröße (Bandbreite) und -verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit, gehen aber ausnahmslos von XML als zukünftigem Datenformat aus. Insgesamt wird aus inhaltlichen wie politischen Gründen ISO 15022 als zukünftig dominanter Standard erwartet.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
Coordination In Networks: An Economic Equilibrium Analysis
Information Systems and e-Business Management (1:2), p. 189-211

View Abstract
Networks utilizing modern communication technologies can offer competitive advantages to those using them wisely. But due to the existence of network effects, planning and operating cooperation networks is difficult. In this paper, the strategic situation of individual agents deciding on network participation is analysed. A systematic equilibrium analysis using computer-based simulations reveals principal solution scenarios for network agents and shows that network cooperation problems might frequently be not as difficult to resolve as often feared. In particular, strategic situations are identified showing that a majority of individuals might be better off getting the optimal solution from a central principal and that in many cases simple information intermediation can solve the start-up problem notorious in network economics.

Keim, T., Färber, F., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Enhancing Partner Matching with Recommender Systems
Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Naples, Italy
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Collaboration is vital for the survival of companies in today's fast moving economy and, therefore, finding and matching partners is an important task. This is true for many different scenarios ranging from companies building consortiums over organizations frequently staffing project teams to the recruitment of new employees. An empirical survey among the Top 1000 companies in Germany on state-of-the-art recruitment practices shows that the Internet is already heavily used to attract and identify large sets of potential partners or applicants. However, the selection of the most suitable candidates from this pool by predicting the quality of the resulting partnership is only merely supported by information technology. Building on existing research in the fields of team building and information systems, we first outline the enhanced information requirements for online partner matching compared to partner information currently available on the Internet. Based on this, we then delineate how recommendation systems can assist in improving matching quality by incorporating relational information when bringing partners together online.

Färber, F., Keim, T., König, W., von Westarp, F., Weitzel, T., and Wendt, O. (2003)
Recruiting Trends 2003 - Eine empirische Untersuchung der Top-1.000-Unternehmen in Deutschland
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

View Abstract
Die Ansprache potenzieller neuer Mitarbeiter ist durch den Einsatz moderner Technologien und durch die vielfältigen Änderungen am Arbeitsmarkt großen Veränderungen unterworfen. Die Studie "Recruiting Trends 2003" der Universität Frankfurt und TMP Worldwide/Monster Deutschland zeigt, dass einige Unternehmen mit dem Einsatz innovativer Instrumente zur webgestützten Personalsuche bereits erste Erfolge erzielen konnten. So wurden Kosteneinsparungen von bis zu 50 % realisiert. Und die Reichweite der Personalmarketingmaßnahmen erhöhte sich signifikant. Die vorliegende Studie bietet Ihnen über unsere wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen hinaus anhand zahlreicher Fallbeispiele aus der Praxis einen Einblick in die Strategien der Zukunft für moderne Personalbeschaffung.

Weitzel, T. (2003)
Das Dokument als Datenbank - Skalierbare XML-Anwendungen mit der Infonyte-DB
XML & Web Services Magazin, 1/03, S. 35-39

View Abstract
Wie können hochperformante Anwendungen, die mit großen XML-Mengen umgehen müssen, gebaut werden? Der Artikel beschreibt anhand einer Demoanwendung, wie XML-Daten zur effizienten Abfrage abgelegt werden können (XML storage and retrieval) und die Ergebnisse in HTML oder XML präsentiert werden (XML transformations). Grundlage für die Beispielanwendung ist die ca. 500 MB große XML-Version der FreeDB, einer öffentlichen Datenbank mit CD-Informationen bestehend aus Künstlername, CD-Titel, Tracklisten etc. Die Demo ist implementiert mithilfe von Java Server Pages und XSLT Stylesheets auf Grundlage der Infonyte-DB, eines Spin-Off aus dem Fraunhofer Institut für Integrierte Publikations- und Informationssysteme (ehem. GMD-IPSI). Aufgrund der geringen Systemanforderungen der Infonyte XML-DB steht diese Anwendung auch für die PocketPC Plattform zur Verfügung!

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
An Individual View on Cooperation Networks
Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Networks utilizing modern communication technologies can offer competitive advantages to those using them wisely (e.g. enterprises). Besides technical and organizational issues there are prob-lems concerning planning and operating networks due to an asymmetry of costs and benefits among the network agents making the development of internalization strategies difficult. Goal of this paper is to systematically identify the strategic decision situation of individual agents as a foundation for cooperation strategies aimed at exploiting network benefits. A systematic analysis of decision errors of agents in networks using computer-based simulations reveals principal solution scenarios and shows that network cooperation problems might frequently be not as difficult to resolve as often feared using comparatively simple strategies.

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
The German Mobile Standards Battle
Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
The diffusion of innovations has long been a research domain in IS research. Yet, there is no sound theory nor practice to fully understand the complex mechanisms behind networks of users who are tied together by compatibility requirements as is frequently witnessed in information and communication networks. The goal of this paper is to identify key determinants of the technology battle between WAP and i-mode that is recently raging between German cellular service providers and to propose a possible diffusion path. By adapting an existing network model of technology diffusion, key influences are identified and incorporated into a computer-based simulation model. In doing so, trade-offs like better presentation quality on i-mode cellular clients vs. higher service costs compared to WAP applications can be modeled to propose a systematic sensitivity analysis of factors influencing the success of the respective mobile technologies and associated services. Not at least, the simulation model supports mobile services providers to customize their prices for a faster market penetration through regarding not only indirect (WAP, i-mode) but also direct network effects (SMS, i-mail) as crucial factors for adopters.

2002

Tesch, T., Fankhauser, P., and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Skalierbare Verarbeitung von XML mit Infonyte-DB
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (44:5), p. 469-475

View Abstract
Die zunehmende Durchdringung von IT-Architekturen mit XML führt zu immer größeren XML-Datenvolumen. Diese lassen sich mit den zur Verfügung stehenden XML-Werkzeugen nicht immer skalierbar verarbeiten. Das Produkt Infonyte-DB der Infonyte GmbH ist ein modularer XML-Kernel, der sehr ressourcenschonend große XML-Datenvolumen effizient verarbeiten kann.

Fricke, M., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Lampe, R. (2002)
EDI and Business-to-Business Systems: The Status Quo and the Future of Business Relations in the European Automotive Industry
Proceedings of the 6th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Tokio, Japan

View Abstract
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) has been used in businesses for over 40 years to reduce the costs of document processing. In this paper, we analyze the use of EDI in the European automotive industry depending on company-size and region. Even though EDI is strongly used by the European manufactures and suppliers, our empirical results show a clear trend that future Internet-based solutions for exchanging business documents and to support collaborative supply-chain business scenarios will significantly exceed the current level of EDI.

Mintert, S. and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Erweiterte Gefahr: Erster XML-Virus befällt Browser und Handys
iX, Magazin für professionelle Informationstechnik

Beimborn, D., Mintert, S., and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Web Services und ebXML
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (44:3), p. 277-280

Beck, R., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2002)
The Myth of WebEDI
Proceedings of the 2002 IFIP I3E Conference, Lisbon, Portugal

Beck, R., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2002)
Promises and pitfalls of SME integration
Proceedings of the 15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, e-Reality: Constructing the e-Economy, Bled, Slovenia

View Abstract
The advent of Web technology and standards as XML had many hope for seamless business integration. Especially small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) were considered to finally participate in existing EDI networks. In this paper the authors show that there are principle obstacles to integrating SMEs that are often neglected and that require coordination designs substantially different from those often used.

Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., and Mintert, S. (2002)
Infrastrukturen für neue Geschäftsszenarien - Economics of (Web-)Service Infrastructures
Working Paper, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

Weitzel, T. and von Westarp, F. (2002)
From QWERTY to nuclear power reactors: Historic battles for the standard
Geihs/Koenig/von Westarp (ed.): Networks - Standardization, Infrastructure, and Applications, Berlin (Springer) 2002, 33-61. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Networks-Standardization-Infrastructure-Applications-Information/dp/3790814490

View Abstract
Key success factors in eleven historic standardization battles are discussed, among them the famous VHS versus Betamax, IBM vs. Apple or QWERTY vs. Dvorak`s keyboard design.

2001

Weitzel, T. (2001)
Netzeffekttheorie
Lexikon der Wirtschaftsinformatik, Berlin 2001, 322-324. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Lexikon-Wirtschaftsinformatik-Peter-Mertens/dp/3540423397

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2001)
Virtuelles Vertrauen oder vertraute Virtualit
Dialog 2/2001, Frankfurt

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., Ladner, F., and Kronenberg, R. (2001)
XML und EDI - Der Stand der Standardisierung
Rossbach, G. (Hrsg.): Mobile Internet, Karlsruhe 2001, 269-283. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Mobile-Internet-Deutscher-Internet-Kongress-Karlsruhe/dp/3898641430

Weitzel, T., Son, S., and König, W. (2001)
Infrastrukturentscheidungen in vernetzten Unternehmen: Eine Wirtschaftlichkeitsanalyse am Beispiel von X.500 Directory Services
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (43:4), p. 371-381

Buxmann, P. and Weitzel, T. (2001)
Electronic Data Interchange - Eine XML-Anwendung zum Rechnungsaustausch
Turowski, K./Fellner, K. (Hrsg.): XML in der betrieblichen Praxis - Standards, M, Heidelberg. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/XML-betrieblichen-Praxis-Klaus-Turowski/dp/3932588916

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., König, W., and Ladner, F. (2001)
Anwendung der Extensible Markup Language (XML): Konzeption und Implementierung einer WebEDI-Lösung
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (43:3), p. 257-267

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2001)
Zwischenbetriebliche Kooperationen und elektronische Märkte
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), 26.03.2001, Frankfurt am Main

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2001)
Strategien im M-Business: Kooperation oder Alleingang?
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), 28.03.2001, Frankfurt

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., and von Westarp, F. (2001)
Modeling Diffusion Processes in Networks
Networks - Standardization, Infrastructure, and Applications, Berlin (Springer ) 2001, 3-31. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Networks-Standardization-Infrastructure-Applications-Information/dp/3790814490

View Abstract
In this paper, some of the main results of the research project "Economics of Standards in Information Networks" are presented and integrated into a single framework of technology diffusion. We present an agent-based simulation model that incorporates structural determinants of networks (centrality, topology/density) and individual decision making on the part of prospective technology users under realistic informational assumptions. Based upon these models, decision behavior in terms of the selection of standards and the diffusion of technological innovations in networks can be described; the model can serve as a tool for developing and evaluating various internalization strategies that aim at answering questions like how to consider the determinants of an increasingly global and networked market when choosing corporate strategies.

Weitzel, T., Harder, T., and Buxmann, P. (2001)
Electronic Business und EDI mit XML
Heidelberg. Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Electronic-Business-EDI-mit-XML/dp/3932588983

Beck, R., König, W., and Weitzel, T. (2001)
IT Standards and Network Effects
Proceedings of the Academic Network in the Field of Standardisation, Brussels

2000

Weitzel, T. (2000)
Interview mit Detlev Hoch, McKinsey: Erfolgsfaktoren in der Software-Branche
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (WI) (42), Sonderheft, 10-12

König, W., Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., von Westarp, F., and Klug, M. (2000)
Einsatz betrieblicher Standardsoftware - Fallstudien in fünf deutschen Unternehmen
SFB 403 Arbeitsbericht (00-06)

König, W., Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., von Westarp, F., and Putzke, D. (2000)
EDI-Systeme bei der Lufthansa AG
SFB 403 Arbeitsbericht (00-07)

König, W., Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., von Westarp, F., and Magaritis, K. (2000)
Entscheidungen über betriebliche Standardsoftware - Die Migration des SAP-Systems bei der LSG
Research Report, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

View Abstract
Auch SFB 403 Arbeitsbericht (00-08)

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., and von Westarp, F. (2000)
A communication architecture for the digital economy - 21st century EDI
Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., and Ladner, F. (2000)
The Extensible Markup Language - New opportunities in the area of EDI
Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Wien, Österreich

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., and von Westarp, F. (2000)
Reconsidering Network Effect Theory
Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Wien, Österreich (Best Paper Nomination)

View Abstract
According to the network effect literature, network externalities lead to market failure due to Pareto-inferior coordination results. We show that the assumptions and simplifications implicitly used for modeling standardization processes fail to explain the real-world variety of diffusion courses in today's dynamic IT markets, and we derive requirements for a more general model of network effects. We argue that agent-based computational economics provides a solid basis for meeting these requirements by integrating evolutionary models from game theory and institutional economics. (also: SFB 403 Forschungsbericht (00-10))

1999

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., Ladner, F., and König, W. (1999)
XML - Konzept und Anwendungen der Extensible Markup Language, SFB 403
Arbeitsbericht SFB 403, 99-23

Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (1999)
Auswirkung alternativer Koordinationsmechanismen auf die Auswahl von Kommunikationsstandards
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) Volume 2, p.133-151

von Westarp, F., Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (1999)
The Management of Software Standards in Enterprises - Report of an Empirical Study in Germany and the US
SFB 403, Frankfurt/Main

von Westarp, F., Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., and König, W. (1999)
The Status Quo and the Future of EDI
Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Copenhagen, Denmark

Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., von Westarp, F., and König, W. (1999)
The Standardization Problem - An Economic Analysis of Standards in Information Systems
Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT), Aachen

von Westarp, F., Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., and König, W. (1999)
Innovationen im Bereich der B2B-Kommunikation - Fallstudien und technische Lösungen zu WebEDI
in: Elektronische Dienstleistungsgesellschaft und Financial Engineering, Augsburg

König, W., Weitzel, T., and Buxmann, P. (1999)
The Standardization Problem in Networks - A General Framework
in: Jakobs, K. (ed.): Standards and Standardization: A Global Perspective. IGI Publishing, Hershey (PA). Erhältlich unter: http://www.amazon.de/Information-Technology-Standards-Standardization-Perspective/dp/1878289705

Weitzel, T., Kronenberg, R., Ladner, F., and Buxmann, P. (1999)
Die Rückkehr der EDI-Ritter - XML/EDI als Alternative zu traditionellem EDI
iX Magazin für professionelle Informationstechnik (7), 127-129.

1998

Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., Kronenberg, R., and Ladner, F. (1998)
Erfolgsfaktor Standard: Internet-basierte Kooperationen mit WebEDI und XML/EDI
Proceedings of the 1998 Kooperationsnetze und Elektonische Koordination, Augsburg