Maier, C., Laumer, S., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Technostress and the hierarchical levels of personality: a two-wave study with multiple data samples
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:4, 1-27

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Even though IS use has numerous benefits for users and organisations, such as improved user performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience technostress. Since technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads users to perceive it. Recent technostress research points to the relationship between personality traits and the perception of technostress as a research gap. Given that personality traits are structured hierarchically, we study how and which levels of user personality influence the perception of technostress. In developing our research model, we select personality traits from the three hierarchical levels of personality: neuroticism, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and IT mindfulness. The results of 2 two-wave studies analysing data collected in an organisational setting (sample 1) and through mTurk (sample 2) reveal that all three personality traits influence the perception of technostress, with IT mindfulness having the strongest impact. This study contributes by revealing that user personality and, primarily, IT mindfulness influence the perception of technostress. Additionally, our findings reveal an inverted u-curved influence of techno-stressors on user performance, deepening our understanding of how the perception of technostress influences user reactions.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) , ,

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From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Buettner, R., Sauer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2018)
Real-time Prediction of User Performance based on Pupillary Assessment via Eye Tracking
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (10:1), 26-56,

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We propose a method to predict user performance based on eye-tracking. The method uses eye-tracking-based pupillometry to capture pupil diameter data and calculates -based on a Random Forest algorithm - user performance expectations. We conducted a large-scale experimental evaluation (125 participants aged from 21 to 61 years) and found promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to a user's mental effort and expected user performance. We have already achieved a good classification accuracy of user performance after only 40 seconds (5% of the mean total trial time that our participants took to complete our experiment). The non-invasive contact-free method can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360,

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In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343,

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When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82,

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This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308,

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Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47,

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In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
The impact of business process management and applicant tracking systems on recruiting process performance: An empirical study
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p.421-453, 10.1007/s11573-014-0758-9

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This research focuses on the effects of different business process management components in combination with information technology on recruiting process performance. The results of a study of Germany's largest 1,000 business enterprises (response rate 13.1 percent) reveal that business process analysis, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems reduce recruiting process costs. Specifically, the cycle time of the recruiting process can be shortened significantly through business process controlling and process analysis, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization combined with applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well these systems used together with business process controlling have a significant positive impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved through business process controlling as well as through a combination of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Our results reveal that several components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have differing impacts on recruiting process performance. This paper discusses these diverse effects of business process management on process performance and draws implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Information technology as daily stressor: pinning down the causes of burnout
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p. 349-387,

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The research presented in this article aims to identify information technology-related stressors in daily work life that might contribute to burnout. We provide a detailed analysis of techno- and work-stressors, techno- and work-exhaustion, as well as the consequences of and interrelations among these perceptions. Techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model assesses whether using information technology (IT) or other work-stressors cause exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover intention. The results of an empirical study with 306 employees show that IT usage causes exhaustion because techno-stressors contribute to techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Our results also reveal that work-exhaustion negatively impacts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion only indirectly causes these psychological and behavioral responses through work-exhaustion. Finally, post hoc analyses identify that employees who use IT as a supporting tool for their daily work process (such as HR workers) report higher levels of techno-exhaustion than employees for whom IT is the core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers).

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66,

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Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464,

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As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431,

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Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise Content Management
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (5:6), p. 449-452,

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207,
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

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An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75,

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Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.