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Journal-Artikel (Peer Reviewed)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Technostress and the hierarchical levels of personality: a two-wave study with multiple data samples
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:4, 1-27

View Abstract
Even though IS use has numerous benefits for users and organisations, such as improved user performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience technostress. Since technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads users to perceive it. Recent technostress research points to the relationship between personality traits and the perception of technostress as a research gap. Given that personality traits are structured hierarchically, we study how and which levels of user personality influence the perception of technostress. In developing our research model, we select personality traits from the three hierarchical levels of personality: neuroticism, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and IT mindfulness. The results of 2 two-wave studies analysing data collected in an organisational setting (sample 1) and through mTurk (sample 2) reveal that all three personality traits influence the perception of technostress, with IT mindfulness having the strongest impact. This study contributes by revealing that user personality and, primarily, IT mindfulness influence the perception of technostress. Additionally, our findings reveal an inverted u-curved influence of techno-stressors on user performance, deepening our understanding of how the perception of technostress influences user reactions.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) , , https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-019-00335-0

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From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Brown, M., Quesenberry, J., Niederman, F., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
New Approaches to Optimizing the Digital Workplace: Special Issue Editorial
MIS Quarterly Executive 17:4, p. ix-xxiii

Buettner, R., Sauer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2018)
Real-time Prediction of User Performance based on Pupillary Assessment via Eye Tracking
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (10:1), 26-56, http://dx.doi.org/10.17705/1thci.00103

View Abstract
We propose a method to predict user performance based on eye-tracking. The method uses eye-tracking-based pupillometry to capture pupil diameter data and calculates -based on a Random Forest algorithm - user performance expectations. We conducted a large-scale experimental evaluation (125 participants aged from 21 to 61 years) and found promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to a user's mental effort and expected user performance. We have already achieved a good classification accuracy of user performance after only 40 seconds (5% of the mean total trial time that our participants took to complete our experiment). The non-invasive contact-free method can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41303-016-0029-7

View Abstract
In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Shareef, M., Dwivedi, Y.K., Laumer, S., and Archer, N. (2016)
Citizens' Adoption Behavior of Mobile Government (mGov): A Cross-Cultural Study
Information Systems Management 33:3, 268-283, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10580530.2016.1188573

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This study aims to address the paradigms of consumers' adoption behavior for mobile government, posits the factors which pursue citizens' intention to adopt mobile government services, and reveals the impact of cultural dimensions in perceiving driving factors of mobile government adoption. The mobile government adoption model was developed and tested among users of three different countries, namely Bangladesh, Canada, and Germany. The finding suggests the rationale that cross-cultural differences impact consumers' perception of mobile government adoption behavior.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2016.1

View Abstract
When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

von Stetten, A. (2015)
Control Modes in IT Outsourcing: Findings from a Case Study Series on Nearshoring in Europe
Controlling - Zeitschrift für erfolgsorientierte Unternehmenssteuerung (27:12), pp. 703-708

View Abstract
This work provides empirical insights into the exercise of and the interplay between formal and informal modes of control in IT outsourcing. The findings stem from a case study series comprising 18 outsourcing arrangements with clients from Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland and vendors from various Central and Eastern European countries.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
On the Untapped Value of IT in HRM - a Literature Review
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) 38:2, , http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol38/iss1/2

View Abstract
The "war for talent" is still on. Annually conducted surveys have indicated for years that one third of all organizations are unable to fill vacant job positions with suitable candidates. Responding to these and other challenges, human resource management (HRM) is expected to transform itself. General opinion holds that the HRM transformation has just begun and that the potential of IT in HRM is not yet fully exploited. Examining the value potential of IT in HRM, existing IS research predominately studies the impact of IT on HRM. We contribute by examining the reverse impact in three steps. First, we use Thompson's theory of organizations in action to examine the expected impact of the HRM transformation on IT ("to-be" situation). Second, we use Kohli and Grover's IT value typology and review 20 years of the publication history ("as-is" situation). Finally, we relate expectations to actual review findings. We find that the HRM transformation should lead to a major shift in technology type used in organizations. However, this shift is not recognized yet, which is why our literature review reveals considerable unaddressed value potential of IT in HRM. We finish the paper by outlining IS research avenues in the context of HRM.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.17

View Abstract
This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Eymann, T., Kundisch, D., Wehrmann, A., Legner, C., Schell, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Are Requirements for Graduates of Master and PhD Programs in Business and Information Systems Engineering Changing?
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (6:6), p. 367-376, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11576-014-0442-2

Schlosser, F., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Wagner, H. (2015)
Achieving Social Alignment between Business and IT - An Empirical Evaluation of the Efficacy of IT Governance Mechanisms
Journal of Information Technology 30, 119-135, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.2

View Abstract
How can firms improve the degree of social alignment between their business and IT units? Many years of research have shown the importance of business-IT alignment and its various facets, yet research on the efficacy of IT governance mechanisms to improve business-IT alignment is scarce. In this paper, we develop a model of social alignment at an operational level that considers the degree of social capital between an organization's business and IT units, IT personnel's business understanding, and a set of formal and informal IT governance mechanisms that drive the creation of social alignment and business value. Using survey data from 132 U.S. banks, we show that social alignment is driven to varying degrees by a broad variety of IT governance mechanisms ranging from top management support and IT representation on the executive board to joint IT planning and IS trainings, regular meeting cycles and liaison units. Our research contributes substantially to the practical demand on business-IT alignment research for an effective toolkit of IT governance mechanisms.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/isj.12068

View Abstract
Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2843824.2843827

View Abstract
In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
The impact of business process management and applicant tracking systems on recruiting process performance: An empirical study
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p.421-453, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s11573-014-0758-9

View Abstract
This research focuses on the effects of different business process management components in combination with information technology on recruiting process performance. The results of a study of Germany's largest 1,000 business enterprises (response rate 13.1 percent) reveal that business process analysis, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems reduce recruiting process costs. Specifically, the cycle time of the recruiting process can be shortened significantly through business process controlling and process analysis, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization combined with applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well these systems used together with business process controlling have a significant positive impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved through business process controlling as well as through a combination of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Our results reveal that several components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have differing impacts on recruiting process performance. This paper discusses these diverse effects of business process management on process performance and draws implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Information technology as daily stressor: pinning down the causes of burnout
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p. 349-387, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11573-014-0759-8

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to identify information technology-related stressors in daily work life that might contribute to burnout. We provide a detailed analysis of techno- and work-stressors, techno- and work-exhaustion, as well as the consequences of and interrelations among these perceptions. Techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model assesses whether using information technology (IT) or other work-stressors cause exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover intention. The results of an empirical study with 306 employees show that IT usage causes exhaustion because techno-stressors contribute to techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Our results also reveal that work-exhaustion negatively impacts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion only indirectly causes these psychological and behavioral responses through work-exhaustion. Finally, post hoc analyses identify that employees who use IT as a supporting tool for their daily work process (such as HR workers) report higher levels of techno-exhaustion than employees for whom IT is the core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers).

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2014.27

View Abstract
Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Contagious Power of Innovativeness: How Different Corporate Partners Contribute to a Firm's Knowledge
International Journal of Innovation Management (19:4), article 1550042, http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S1363919615500425

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As innovation is often created in networks, a company's business partners influence its innovative outcome. Although many studies investigate innovation networks as a means to explore and exploit external knowledge, virtually no research has focused on the characteristics of external partners - in particular their innovativeness. This study considers axial and lateral corporate partners and investigates the differential impact of the partners' innovativeness on a company's knowledge stocks (market, technological, organizational, process, and product knowledge). Drawing on the literature on inter-organizational networks and using survey data from the manufacturing industry, the results extend theory by revealing that not only relationships with partners but also their properties - partner innovativeness - are important for a company's knowledge stock. In essence our results suggest that the innovativeness of a firm's axial and lateral partners positively yet diversely influences its various knowledge stocks.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2014.3

View Abstract
As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

Eymann, T., Kundisch, D., Wehrmann, A., Legner, C., Schell, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Ändern sich die beruflichen Anforderungen an Masterabsolventen und Doktoranden der Wirtschaftsinformatik?
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (56:6), p. 403-413

Dwivedi, Y.K., Wastell, D., Laumer, S., Zinner Henriksen, H., Myers, M.D., Bunker, D., Elbanna, A., Ravishankar, M.N., and Srivastava, S.S. (2014)
Research on information systems failures and successes: Status update and future directions
Information Systems Frontiers 17:1, p. 143-157, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10796-014-9500-y

View Abstract
Information systems success and failure are among the most prominent streams in IS research. Explanations of why some IS fulfill their expectations, whereas others fail, are complex and multi-factorial. Despite the efforts to understand the underlying factors, the IS failure rate remains stubbornly high. A Panel session was held at the IFIP Working Group 8.6 conference in Bangalore in 2013 which forms the subject of this Special Issue. Its aim was to reflect on the need for new perspectives and research directions, to provide insights and further guidance for managers on factors enabling IS success and avoiding IS failure. Several key issues emerged, such as the need to study problems from multiple perspectives, to move beyond narrow considerations of the IT artifact, and to venture into underexplored organizational contexts, such as the public sector.

George, B., Hirschheim, R., and von Stetten, A. (2014)
Through the Lens of Social Capital: A Research Agenda for Studying IT Outsourcing
Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal (7:2), p. 107-134

View Abstract
Purpose: Motivated by the belief that the social capital concept enables IT outsourcing researchers to capture more of the nuances of the client-vendor relationship in IT outsourcing arrangements, this paper proposes a new research agenda for IT outsourcing. Design/methodology/approach: The paper builds a comprehensive framework of social capital based on Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) to examine the IT outsourcing life-cycle. Past research on IT outsourcing is examined applying the parameters of the framework to identify issues that have been addressed in research on IT outsourcing and to uncover the gaps in past research. Findings: The social capital framework is applied to IT outsourcing which suggests new avenues for future outsourcing research. Research limitations/implications: While past research has identified success factors for IT outsourcing, a significant number of outsourcing arrangement still fail to meet expectations. The research agenda presented in this paper encourages an examination of IT outsourcing from a different perspective to determine how to successfully manage IT outsourcing. Originality/value: The paper provides a new framework that is useful for identifying the relationships among past research in IT outsourcing as well as for identifying potential topics for future research.

Zolper, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The effect of social network structures at the business/IT interface on IT application change effectiveness
Journal of Information Technology (29:2), p.148-169, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2014.6

View Abstract
The challenge of managing the relationship between a firm's business and IT in order to derive business value from IT is an important topic on researchers' and practitioners' agendas. The focus of most related research and management actions has been on the top management or project management levels. However, conflicts frequently arise within the line organization when applications are extended, enhanced, maintained, or otherwise changed operationally outside software development projects. This study focuses on the impact of relationships at the application-change level and strives to identify and explain favorable social structures for effective business/IT dialog at the operational level. We collected data in seven comprehensive case studies, including 88 interviews and corresponding surveys, and applied social network analysis to show that three social structures at the implementation level influence the degree to which IT applications are maintained and enhanced in line with business requirements: (1) interface actors connecting business and IT, (2) the relationships between interface actors and the corresponding unit, and (3) the relationships between interface actors and other employees in their unit. In three cases, less favorable structures are revealed that correspond to low application change effectiveness and software applications that do not meet business requirements. The other cases benefit from favorable social structures and thus enhance fulfillment of business requirements and result in higher IT business value. This paper contributes to IS research by helping to explain why companies may not provide favorable IT services despite favorable relationships at the top management level and successful application development projects.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-07-2013-0079

View Abstract
Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
How Social Capital among IT and Business Units Drives Operational Alignment and IT Business Value
Journal of Management Information Systems (31:1), p. 241-272, http://www.jmis-web.org/articles/1193

View Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that IT and business resources need to be well aligned to achieve organizational goals. Yet, year after year, chief information officers (CIOs) still name business-IT alignment a key challenge for IT executives. While alignment research has matured, we still lack a sound theoretical foundation for alignment. Transcending the predominantly strategic executive level focus, we develop a model of 'operational alignment' and IT business value that combines a social perspective of IT and business linkage with a view of interaction between business and IT at non-strategic levels, such as in daily business operations involving regular staff. Drawing on social capital theory to explain how alignment affects organizational performance, we examine why common suggestions like "communicate more" are insufficient to strengthen alignment and disclose how social capital between IT and business units drives alignment and ultimately IT business value. Empirical data from 136 firms confirms the profound impact of operational business-IT alignment, composed of social capital and business understanding of IT, on IT flexibility, IT utilization, and organizational performance. The results show that social capital theory is a useful theoretical foundation for understanding how business IT alignment works. The findings suggest that operational alignment is at least as important as strategic alignment for IT service quality, that managers need to focus on operational aspects of alignment beyond communication by fostering knowledge, trust and respect, and that IT utilization and flexibility are appropriate intermediate goals for business-IT alignment governance.

Zolper, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
When the river leaves its bed: analyzing deviations between planned and actual interaction structures in IT change processes
Journal of Information Technology (18:4), p. 333-353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jit.2013.23

View Abstract
There is ample evidence of deviations between the actual and planned interaction structures between a firm's IT department and business units. Such deviations can hinder senior managers from governing their IT organizations effectively because they do not know how work really gets done. This paper develops an explanation for why actual structures differ from planned structures. Understanding this phenomenon is indispensable for managers to govern the real organization, to uphold compliance with important standards (e.g., ITIL, COBIT), to decide whether the formal or the actual organization is more effective, and, finally, to identify management actions that support the optimal structure. To develop this understanding, we analyze the interaction structures at the interface between firms' business units and IT units in four rich cases, using data from 56 interviews and 47 questionnaires, and applying qualitative methods and social network analysis, which give us deep insights into planned and actual interaction among employees. We test two different explanations for deviations of actual from planned interaction structures and find that boundary-spanning theory provides the dominant explanation for such deviations: Inclined to span the business/IT boundary most effectively, the actors involved deviate from planned structures especially when other structures offer better boundary-spanning potential, which is influenced primarily by cross-domain knowledge. In addition, relationships also play an important role. On the positive side, relationships provide opportunities for such deviations, while on the negative side, a conflict-laden relationship might hinder deviations even if they were advantageous.

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise Content Management
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (5:6), p. 449-452, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12599-013-0291-3

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise-Content-Management
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (55:6), p. 453-456, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11576-013-0384-0

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Influence of SOA Governance Mechanisms on IT Flexibility and Service Reuse
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:1), p. 86-101, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.10.003

View Abstract
While many firms have introduced SOA, only one in five have achieved anticipated benefits such as increased IT flexibility or reuse. Industry analysts assume that a lack of SOA governance is the main reason why SOA projects fail. Addressing the substantial research gap on SOA governance this paper theoretically and empirically investigates which SOA governance mechanisms are needed to achieve the benefits of SOA, such as increasing IT flexibility and reusing services. The proposed theoretical SOA governance model is evaluated using data from 81 SOA-using organizations. Overall, the results confirm the relevance of a variety of SOA governance mechanisms (structures, processes, and employees/relations), but at the same time, that IT infrastructure flexibility and service reuse are influenced by different mechanisms. Key governance mechanisms that show a strong effect on infrastructure flexibility are using standards, service management processes, educating employees, and IT/business communication while reuse can only be increased through service management, standards and qualification. Contrary to expectations, implementing new, dedicated decision-making bodies for SOA hampers organizations in achieving higher degrees of IT flexibility and reuse, and a firm is better off using existing IT decision-making bodies.

Moos, B., Beimborn, D., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Role of Knowledge Management Systems for Innovation: An Absorptive Capacity Perspective
International Journal of Innovation Management (17:5), article 1359919, http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S1363919613500199

View Abstract
What is the role of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) for a firm's innovativeness and absorptive capacity (ACAP)? Research shows that a firm's capacity to acquire and utilize relevant knowledge, i.e., its absorptive capacity, is decisive for innovation success. We develop a theoretical model that links the availability and usage of KMS with a firm's ACAP and its organizational knowledge to explain its contribution for a firm's innovation success. Using data from 222 manufacturing firms we can show that the availability of a KMS in a firm affects its innovation success by contributing to its ACAP. Looking at the impact of different knowledge types on innovativeness, the results show that only technological knowledge is a substantial determinant of innovation success but not market knowledge.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2012.09.001
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

View Abstract
An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Gaming to Find a New Job - Examining Job Seekers' Intention to Use Serious Games as a Self-Assessment Tool
Zeitschrift für Personalforschung: German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management (26:3), p. 218-240

View Abstract
Serious games can be used as self-assessment tools in recruiting processes. We develop a model explaining jobseekers' intentions to use these applications, which help them to gain a realistic idea of the job at hand and allows them to submit their application only if the job truly fits their individual profile. Drawing on organizational justice theory and the technology acceptance literature, our model is empirically evaluated using data from 1,882 jobseekers. The results indicate that jobseekers' intention to use self-assessments is driven in particular by its perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived selection fairness. In contrast, the issue of privacy security has no significant impact on jobseekers' intentions. For firms, using serious games as a self-assessment tool can lead to a reduction in the total number of unsuitable applications they receive.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Analyzing and managing the impact of cultural behaviour patterns on social capital in multinational IT project teams - A case study approach
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (4:3), p.137-151

View Abstract
This paper contributes to a better understanding and to mitigate negative consequences of cultural diversity in multinational IT project teams. Our research explores how culture-specific behaviours impact social capital among team members and how firms can manage the strains. In the existing IS culture literature, culture-specific behaviours are - if at all - traced back to single culture dimensions. In contrast, the approach proposed in this article goes one step further suggesting that it is necessary to combine several culture dimensions to better understand a certain culture-specific behaviour and consequently be able to better manage resulting relationship problems in multinational settings. Conducting exploratory case studies in six multinational IT projects, two exemplary cultural behaviour patterns (face maintenance in India and post-communism in the Czech Republic) are identified, and management actions to avoid project performance problems are derived. The results contribute to a better understanding and management of the negative impact of culturespecific behaviours in IT project teams and corroborate that research based on culture dimensions, such as those conceptualized by Hofstede or House et al., is valuable for understanding multi-country IS projects. The findings in particular suggest that aggregating these dimensions to cultural behaviour patterns improves their explanatory power and consequently the management's capability to mitigate the negative consequences of cultural diversity.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Auswirkungen kulturspezifischer Verhaltensmuster auf das Sozialkapital in multinationalen IT-Projektteams - Ein Fallstudienansatz
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (54:3), p.135-151

View Abstract
Die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit hilft, negative Auswirkungen kultureller Unterschiede in multikulturellen IT-Projektteams besser verstehen und mittels geeigneter Managementmaßnahmen adressieren zu können. Es wird untersucht, wie sich kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen auf das Sozialkapital multikultureller Teams auswirken und wie ein Unternehmen dadurch entstehende Spannungen besser bewältigen kann. Die bestehende Literatur, die sich mit den kulturellen Auswirkungen im Kontext von Informationssystemen beschäftigt, führt kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen - wenn überhaupt - nur auf einzelne Kulturdimensionen zurück. Der in dieser Arbeit vorgeschlagene Ansatz geht dagegen einen Schritt weiter. Wir argumentieren, dass eine Kombination und Aggregation mehrerer Kulturdimensionen zu so genannten kulturellen Verhaltensmustern notwendig ist, um ein bestimmtes kulturspezifisches Verhalten besser verstehen und die sich daraus ergebenden Beziehungsprobleme in multikulturellen Szenarien in der Folge besser nachvollziehen und bewältigen zu können. Auf Basis von Fallstudien in sechs länderübergreifenden IT-Projekten werden zwei beispielhafte kulturspezifische Verhaltensmuster betrachtet (Gesichtswahrung in Indien und Post-Kommunismus in Tschechien). Zudem werden geeignete Managementmaßnahmen abgeleitet, die zur Vermeidung der sich in den Projekten ergebenden Probleme beitragen. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse fördern ein besseres Verständnis sowie das Management negativer Auswirkungen kulturspezifischen Verhaltens in IT-Projektteams und bestätigen, dass Forschung auf Basis bewährter Kulturdimensionen hierfür einen wichtigen Beitrag liefern kann.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11573-012-0582-z

View Abstract
Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2012)
How To Achieve Operational Business-IT Alignment: Insights From A Global Aerospace Firm
MIS Quarterly Executive (11:1), p. 25-36

View Abstract
A common challenge facing firms is how to effectively embed strategic business-IT alignment into daily routines at the operational level. Based on our findings from following an alignment project in a global aerospace industry leader for almost two years, we put forward a framework, which we call OperA, for establishing operational level business-IT alignment. This framework has three dimensions - knowledge, communication and trust, and identifies alignment paths for three strategic situations faced by firms: major planned changes, regular operations and major unplanned changes. Each path is anchored in a different dimension of the framework. The global aerospace case shows how different mechanisms used for each path improve business processes and enable successful change. The case also revealed frequent pitfalls and dependencies between the dimensions and associated mechanisms that top managers should be aware of as they strive to achieve operational business-IT alignment.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Do Service-Oriented IT Architectures facilitate Business Process Outsourcing? A Study in the German Service Industry
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 77-108

View Abstract
How does a firm's IT architecture affect its potential to outsource business processes? As Information Technology (IT) has become many firms' essential operational infrastructure or "backbone", we are interested in scrutinizing to what extent the kind of IT architecture affects a firm's boundaries or the plasticity of its boundaries. Focusing on the particular concept of service-oriented architectures (SOA), we concretely ask: How does SOA affect business process outsourcing potentials? Since SOA is widely expected to modularize the IT implementation of business processes, it should increase business process outsourcing (BPO) in terms of buying in the provision of single business functionalities. We develop and empirically evaluate a theoretical model that conceptualizes the relationship between SOA and BPO. Questionnaire data from 115 firms give first evidence that SOA facilitates BPO. By increasing IT modularity, SOA supports BPO by increasing sourcing flexibility and, in particular, operational benefits, while at the same time lowering financial risks and strategic risks, such as lock-in. Overall, however, firms see SOA-based BPO mainly in an operational context with low hidden costs and little strategic benefits.

Beimborn, D., Miletzki, T., and Wenzel, S. (2011)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (53:6), p. 371-375

Beimborn, D., Miletzki, T., and Wenzel, S. (2011)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (3:6), p. 381-384

Walentowitz, K. and Beimborn, D. (2011)
The Social Antecedents of Business/IT Alignment - Reviewing the Role of Social Network Structure in Alignment Research
International Journal on IT/Business Alignment and Governance (IJITBAG) (2:2), p. 15-32

View Abstract
Business/IT alignment is a major source of business value generated from IT and social structures at the interface between a firm's business and IT units are of vital importance to business/IT alignment. Yet, there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures. Based on a literature review comprising all related articles published in the AIS Senior Scholars' Basket journals between January 2000 and August 2011, this paper identifies antecedents of alignment related to social network structure. These are translated into formal SNA concepts. The identification and formalization of social network structures allow IT governance to implement social engineering mechanisms influencing the social network structure, thus improve business/IT alignment and IT value. Examples for such translated arguments are high degree centrality of CIOs vis-à-vis other executives and strong ties in terms of cross-domain knowledge between CIOs and other executives. Finally, important avenues for future research are highlighted.

Junglas, I., Niehaves, B., Spiekermann, S., Stahl, B.C., Weitzel, T., Winter, R., and Baskerville, R. (2011)
The inflation of academic intellectual capital: the case for design science research in Europe
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (20:1), p. 1-6, http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ejis/journal/v20/n1/pdf/ejis201057a.pdf

Beimborn, D. and Joachim, N. (2011)
The Joint Impact of Service-Oriented Architectures and Business Process Management on Business Process Quality: An Empirical Evaluation and Comparison
Information Systems and e-Business Management (9:3), p. 333-362, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10257-010-0129-1

View Abstract
What is the interplay between Business Process Management (BPM) and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in achieving high business process quality? In this paper, we empirically investigate the impact of both SOA and BPM on business process quality in terms of straight-through processing (STP), business-to-business integration, quality control, as well as standardization and consolidation of business processes. For the empirical evaluation of our model, we use the data of 157 German service firms. The results show that the SOA paradigm has still received rather low adoption rates in the industry. However, SOA, BPM, and related information technologies have a direct positive impact on business process quality and the analysis provides evidence for the complementarities of BPM and SOA since interaction effects between them have an additional significant impact on business process quality. Consequently, firms having adopted SOA can more effectively apply BPM.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Electronic Human Resources Management in an E-Business Environment
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (11:4), p. 240-25

View Abstract
This special issue on Electronic Human Resources Management (E-HRM) in an E-Business environment looks at opportunities and challenges associated with recruiting and developing a firm's workforce in a digital world characterized by endemic talent scarcity, changing values and shifting on- and offline behaviors of candidates and employees. We first draw on a Delphi study with leading HR executives from 25 internationally renowned large firms and on a quantitative survey with 144 HR managers from German top 1,000 firms to delineate the key trends and issues for modern HR executives. Demographic challenges and the war for talent are seen as the most important trends in firms of all sizes and in all industries, even ahead of, for example, Social Media or the global economic crisis. Resulting from these trends, our survey reveals that HR managers' most pressing challenges are staff retention and internal and external employer branding. Overall, the results emphasize the importance for an E-HRM that needs to be both effective - adequately fill vacancies - and efficient - make best use of scarce resources. The papers in the special issue address some of the open issues identified. Overall, in a peer-review process two out of nine submitted articles were selected for the special issue (22 per cent acceptance). The first paper by Stefan Strohmeier scrutinizes how e-portfolios can improve e-recruiting and talent management. The second paper by Sharna Wiblen, David Grant and Kristine Dery uses a single case study to learn how a shift from HRM to E-HRM can affect talent management and people in an organization and transform a firm's IT and HR function.

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The performance impact of business process standardization - an empirical evaluation of the recruitment process
Business Process Management Journal (16:1), p. 29-56

View Abstract
Purpose of this paper: This paper aims at showing if business process standardization has an impact on business process performance and should be considered as both a valid BPM measure and a regular driver of process success. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical analysis based on data from 156 firms is used to evaluate the hypothesis that process standardization positively impacts business process time, cost, and quality. Findings: Firstly, the paper proposes a model and empirical operationalization to analyze the impact of process standardization on process performance. Secondly, empirical analysis shows that business process standardization has a decisive impact on process performance (R2: 61.9%). Precisely, there is a significant impact on process time, cost, and most notably on quality. The results indicate that the impact is strongest in services firms and varies subject to a firm's strategy type. Practical implications: The results suggest that business process standardization should regularly be considered a prime action item and major tool in a firm's BPM toolbox. What is original/value of paper: The paper is among the first to empirically show the vital impact of process standardization on performance. For academics and practitioners interested in business process management and the value impact of processes, the results suggest adding process standardization as a regular argument into research on and management of business processes. Keywords: Business process standardization, business process performance, process time, process cost, process quality, staff recruitment.

Münstermann, B., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2010)
The Performance Impact of Business Process Standardization - HR Case Study Insights
Management Research Review (früher: Management Research News) (33:9), p. 924-939

View Abstract
Purpose: This paper intends to enhance the understanding of business process standardization and how it contributes to generate business value. This research is a step towards a solid theoretical framework around business process standardization. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study conducted in a global operating company is completed. Standardization of a certain business process (in our case the recruiting process) is shown to contribute to business value. Findings: By standardizing its recruiting process, the company was able to reduce the "Time-to-Hire" from 92 to 69 days and the overall costs of the recruiting process by about 30 percent. The quality of the applicant data has clearly improved. Clarity and transparency of the recruiting process could be increased while the administrative expense within the HR departments in the distinct business locations could be reduced significantly. Research limitations: As with every case study, the generalizability of our findings is limited because a) the results are based on a single case only and b) because we focus solely on one process - the recruiting process - and do not include other business processes. Practical implications: The case study can be useful for any company that intends to standardize its recruiting process. Clear indications of how to achieve business value out of process standardization are given. Originality/value: This study provides a clear definition of what business process standardization is and how it can lead to increased business value. To practitioners clear indications of how to achieve increased business value by business process standardization are provided. Keywords: Business process standardization, Business value, Human resources information systems, Recruitment Paper type: Case study

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Trunk, N. (2010)
Do as your parents say? - Analyzing IT adoption influencing factors for full and under age applicants
Information Systems Frontiers (12:2), p. 169-183

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2009)
A Framework for Recruiting IT Talent: Lessons from Siemens
MIS Quarterly Executive (8:4), p. 123-197

View Abstract
Recruiting and attracting IT talent remains a challenge for IT executives and will once again come to the forefront as the world's economies begin to emerge from recession. As this happens, we expect skills shortages to rise up the IT management agenda, especially as the "baby boomer" generation begins to retire and as the number of computer science graduates reduces. To help IT recruiters face the challenges, we provide a four-quadrant framework that segments recruitment activities on two dimensions - the recruitment timescale and the scarcity of the skills required. Based on the experiences of German industrial giant Siemens, we have identified the recruitment methods that can be applied in each quadrant and provide an indication of their relative costs. We conclude with eight recommendations for improving the recruitment of IT talent in an era when skilled people increasingly expect to be contacted - even wooed - by prospective employers rather actively searching for opportunities themselves.

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
E-Assessment
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (1:3), p. 263-265

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
E-Assessment
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (51:3), p. 306-308

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Who influences whom? - Analyzing workplace referents' social influence on IT adoption and non-adoption
Journal of Information Technology (14.1), p. 11-24

Wagner, H., Blumenberg, S., and Beimborn, D. (2009)
Knowledge Transfer Processes in IT Outsourcing Relationships and their Impact on Shared Knowledge and Outsourcing Performance
International Journal of Information Management (29:5), p. 342-352

View Abstract
What is the impact of specific knowledge-transfer processes on the level of shared knowledge and, in turn, on outsourcing performance in outsourcing relationships? Drawing on a series of case studies covering IT providers and banks, we investigate several applied knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit or tacit knowledge between outsourcing banks and their providers. We examine the differential influence of various types of knowledge transfer on shared knowledge between the parties and on the resulting outsourcing performance. Results depict the differential impact of various knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit, or tacit knowledge, respectively, on the development of shared knowledge. Interestingly, the combination of both knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit knowledge and those dedicated to the transfer of tacit knowledge proves to be most effective. Furthermore the results indicate that high levels of shared knowledge positively influence outsourcing performance. In addition to previous literature, we found transfer processes for explicit knowledge in an outsourcing context to consist of two dimensions: The content dimension, primarily focused on in literature, and the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes which are rarely addressed in outsourcing literature. The content dimension embraces mechanisms such as trainings, SLAs and standards that define how content has to be interpreted, whereas the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes of explicit knowledge defines explicit, documented interaction structures between parties.

Eckhardt, A. and Laumer, S. (2009)
An IT-Architecture to Align E-Recruiting and Retention Processes
International Journal of E-Services and Mobile Applications (1:2), p. 38-61

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Network effects as drivers of individual technology adoption: Analyzing adoption and diffusion of mobile communication services
Information Systems Frontiers (10:4), p. 415-429

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
The impact of process standardization on business process outsourcing success
Information Systems Frontiers (10:2), p. 211-224

View Abstract
What is the impact of business process standardization on BPO success? This paper argues that there is a direct impact of process standardization on BPO success, due to production cost economies, and also an indirect effect via improved contrac-tual and relational governance resulting from better monitoring opportunities and facilitated communication and coordination. This threefold impact of standardization on BPO success is empirically confirmed using data from 335 BPO ventures in 215 German banks.

Beimborn, D., Martin, S., and Franke, J. (2008)
Value Chain Crossing: Insights and Opportunities for Future Research
International Journal of Electronic Business (6:1), p. 93-109

View Abstract
In this article, we present a research framework that tackles a promising area of e-Business largely neglected before, namely the lateral cooperation of firms from two different industries that interconnect their business processes by means of electronic integration. We refer to this kind of e-Business cooperation as "value chain crossing" and explore, as an exemplary application domain, the integration of financial processes in non-banks and financial service providers. To support our research proposal, we provide exploratory findings from an empirical survey accompanied by a series of case studies which indicate that research in this area of e-Business is worthwhile to be conducted. We identified empirical evidence for a large potential of value chain crossing but also found substantial inhibitors for the adoption of this idea.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Towards an IT production function: understanding routines as fundamental for IT value creation
Journal of Enterprise Information Management (20:4), p. 380-395

View Abstract
The goal of this paper is to identify core IT value drivers in firms and to model them as an IT production function to help disclose and measure the IT value creation process and to guide managers in seeking adequate ways of employing the IT resource. Based on a critical review of the literature on the resource-based view, an IT value framework based on the constructs IT capability, resource, and routine is developed and then formalized as an IT production function. Organizational routines are decisive for turning firm resources into an IT capability and in turn into better business process performance. We show how the IT value creation process in general and routines in particular can be measured and formalized. As the interaction between IT and business units is crucial for IT value generation, organizational routines provide for important knowledge flows that turn firm resources into value generating capabilities. We propose a concrete method to measure and evaluate these routines and thereby contribute to making the IT resource controllable. Our main contribution is the identification and analytical formalization of the role of rou-tines for IT value creation. We show how insights from the resource-based view, micro-economic theory (Cobb-Douglas/CES production function), and Granovetter's strength of ties argument can be used to describe, measure, and guide IT value creation and to develop an IT production function.

Malinowski, J., Weitzel, T., and Keim, T. (2007)
Decision support for team staffing: An automated relational recommendation approach
Decision Support Systems (DSS) (45:3), p.429-477

View Abstract
Selecting individuals for teams is only rarely supported by Information Systems. Existing systems only consider whether a person has the required technical skills and abilities for a job. Another important aspect is neglected - the match between the person and the team members in terms of interpersonal compatibility. We present a decision support system based on a relational recommendation approach for providing an automated pre-selection of candidates that fit best with future team members. The relational recommender contributes to theory by proposing an IS-supported relational approach to team staffing and to practice by offering time and cost savings for HR professionals.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Gomber, P., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Die Bedeutung des Alignments von IT und Fachressourcen in Finanzprozessen: Eine empirische Untersuchung
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (48:5), p. 331-339

View Abstract
Wie kann die Ressource IT wertschaffend eingesetzt werden? Auf der theoretischen Grundlage des Resource-based View of IT sowie der Alignment-Literatur argumentieren wir, dass die tatsächliche Nutzung der IT sowie das Zusammenspiel zwischen IT und Fachabteilungen grundlegend für die Leistung von IT-intensiven Geschäftsprozessen sind. Das entwickelte Wirkmodell wird in einer Studie unter den 1.000 größten Banken Deutschlands empirisch untersucht. Es zeigt sich, dass die Leistung des untersuchten Geschäftsprozesses, wie hypothetisiert, stark von einem Alignment zwischen der IT- und der Geschäftsdomäne abhängt. Ebenso wird deutlich, dass ein bestimmtes Ausmaß fachlicher Ressourcen entscheidend ist und auch eine herausragende IT-Ausstattung und -Unterstützung keine Mängel hinsichtlich dieser fachlichen Ressourcen ausgleichen kann. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen damit wichtige Einsichten der Literatur zu Alignment auch auf Prozessebene und zeigen im Gegensatz zu bestehender Literatur theoretisch wie empirisch, dass der Wertbeitrag der IT nicht ohne Berücksichtigung der Nicht-IT-Fachkompetenz untersucht werden kann.

Gewald, H., Wüllenweber, K., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Influence of Perceived Risks on Banking Managers' Intention to Outsource Business Processes - A Study of the German Banking and Finance Industry
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (7:2), p. 78-96

View Abstract
Information Technology (IT) is a key productive factor in the banking and finance industry (BFI) as almost the entire production and delivery of services can in principle be digitized. Driven by cost pressure and new competitors, outsourcing IT together with the relevant business processes is a promising way to focus on core competencies and to restructure the corporate value chain. While there is a rich literature on the risks and benefits of IT outsourcing, little is known about the next step of business process outsourcing (BPO) and especially the associated risks. Our main hypothesis is that the perceived risks associated with BPO strongly influence the intention of managers to outsource business processes. Based on an empirical survey of BFI managers covering 90% of the cumulated German BFI balance sheet, it is shown that perceived risk does indeed have a significant impact on managers' attitudes towards BPO and that these attitudes strongly influence the outsourcing decision. Financial risks turn out to be a major risk facet, exerting pressure on banks which decide solely in terms of potential cost savings. In addition, the high importance of performance risk requires banks to invest in sophisticated vendor management.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2006)
Designing a process-oriented framework for IT performance management systems
The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation (8:3), p. 219-228

View Abstract
In recent years, control and governance of internal services such as Information Technology (IT) have become quite critical in organisations due to the enormous size of their expenditure. As a result, managers have faced growing pressure to measure the performance of IT departments. Several concepts have been developed during the last few years such as IT governance, IT scorecards, and benchmarking that have been considered by IT and business execu-tives. But surprisingly, a recent study by the IT Governance Institute (ITGI) that covered 335 CEOs and CIOs in 21 countries, reported while more than 91 percent of executives recognize that information technology (IT) is vital to the success of their businesses, more than two-thirds of CEOs are not comfortable answering questions about governance and control over their IT processes.“ The study validates that the major problem continues to be ”the inadequate view of how well IT is performing“ (ITGI, 2004). Hence, decision-makers and stakeholders within private and public companies are insisting that IT executives provide hard facts on mission and IT performance. As such, a promising performance management system is required: setting performance targets, designing efficiency and effectiveness measure, systematically and accurately measuring outcomes, and then using the results for fact-based decision-making. This paper shows, which concepts and frameworks currently exist to measure the performance of the IT department and its delivered IS services. We discuss how a performance management system might be designed and implemented with the purpose to monitor and improve the IT function within a major financial institution in Europe. Finally, this paper pro-vides lessons learned and some recommendations for further research in the area of IT performance management.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2006)
A Unified Economic Model of Standard Diffusion: The Impact of Standardization Cost, Network Effects and Network Topology
Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) Volume 30, p. 489-514

View Abstract
This paper is motivated by the following question: What drives the diffusion of a communication standard and what diffusion results can we expect? Past literature provides many instructive but mostly unrelated answers. Frequent findings are startup problems, penguin effects, and tendencies towards monopoly. But substantial problems in applying the models to concrete standardization problems reveal that the dynamics are probably more complex. Not all networks are ultimately conquered by a single standard once it has attracted a certain number of users. And not all diffusion results are either complete or no standardization. We address the question of the conditions of particular diffusion behaviors by developing a formal standardization model that captures all fragmented phenomena in a unified approach. Drawing from findings of other research we incorporate the structure of the underlying user network as an important determinant for diffusion behaviors. The approach allows us to disclose varying conditions that generate frequently observed standardization behaviors as special parameter constellations of the model. Using equilibrium analysis and computer simulations we identify a standardization gap that reveals the magnitude of available standardization gains for individuals and the network as a whole. The analysis shows that network topology and density have a strong impact on standard diffusion and that the renowned tendency towards monopoly is far less common. We also report how the model can be used to decide on corporate standardization problems.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of Experience for Outsourcing Evaluation
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (47:6), p. 431-440

View Abstract
How can outsourcing be used to improve financial processes and what role does managers' experience with outsourcing play for outsourcing decisions? An empirical survey with CFOs of Germany's Fortune 1,000 firms (non-banks) reveals that (1) there are substantial efficiency potentials in the financial chain of many firms, (2) outsourcing these secondary processes is still quite rare, and (3) prior outsourcing experience of managers has a strong impact on the evaluation of the competencies of external service providers: an experienced manager is more likely to appreciate the provider's skills, someone without outsourcing experience presumes the higher competencies inhouse.

Beck, R. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Some Economics of Vertical Standards: Integrating SMEs in EDI Supply Chains
Electronic Markets (em) (15:4), p. 313-322

View Abstract
Despite the benefits associated with vertical communication standards like EDI or WebEDI, their diffusion among SMEs has failed to a surprising extent. Accordingly, SME integration into value chains is still a critical issue for IS research on standards diffusion. Goal of this contribution is to disclose the reasons for the slow diffusion of EDI and WebEDI among SMEs and to propose concrete solutions. Based on an empirical survey among SMEs in the German office supply industry, economic and technical obstacles to standard diffusion are identified. First, it is shown that EDI and especially WebEDI solutions are simply economically dominated by a widespread practice in SMEs which is using a Fax for business document exchange. Second, as many SMEs do not employ automated material management systems, they lack the necessary technical preconditions for economically viable EDI. Third, based on these findings a concrete EDI solution is delineated that accounts for the economic and technical particularities constraining SMEs. The proposed solution is successfully applied in the office supply industry today and enables SMEs to reap the benefits of bidirectional EDI while avoiding the expensive investments in EDI converter systems that have so far restrained them from participating in vertical standardization.

Beimborn, D. and Hoppen, N. (2004)
A Simulative Approach to Determining the Economic Efficiency of Software Patents
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (46:1), p. 50-60

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Abstract: Traditionally, only technical inventions such as light bulbs or pharmaceuticals were protected by patents. Nowadays software patents are a widly discussed topic in the U.S. and in Europe because of their supposed impact on national innovation rates. Based on an analysis of the determinants of successful software development, we use a bipartite probability model to compare a deregulated market without patents to a market using a patent system. Applying computer-based simulations, we analyze different scenarios to test the impact of different patent duration and width on the innovation behavior of the software market. We show that strong patent protection is globally efficient only in markets with a relatively low profit potential.

Pfaff, D., Skiera, B., and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Financial-Chain-Management: Ein generisches Modell zur Identifikation von Verbesserungspotenzialen
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (46:2), p. 107-117

Weitzel, T. and König, W. (2003)
Computational Economics als wirtschaftsinformatischer Beitrag zu einer interdisziplinären Netzwerktheorie
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (45:5), p. 497-502

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In Informationsnetzen wie Intranets, Supply Chains oder EDI-Netzwerken stellen Standards Kompatibilität her und sind damit Grundlage der Realisierung von Kooperationsvorteilen. Standards konstituieren Netzwerke. Entsprechend bilden Entscheidungen über den Einsatz von Standards einen wichtigen Aufgabenbereich des betrieblichen Informationsmanagements. In diesem Beitrag wird argumentiert, dass die Entwicklung einer hierfür anwendbaren, umfassenden Netzwerktheorie als eine Kernaufgabe der Wirtschaftsinformatik angesehen wird. Ein vielversprechender Rahmen wird in der Erweiterung eines grundsätzlich ökonomisch (nutzen- und gleichgewichtstheoretisch) fundierten Vorgehens um interdisziplinäre Beiträge wie z. B. aus der Soziologie sowie um das Forschungsparadigma der Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) gesehen. Damit können insbesondere die institutionelle Einbettung der sozioökonomischen Netzwerkakteure sowie beschränkte Akteursrationalität und damit die komplexen gegenseitigen Abhängigkeiten von Mikro- (Akteur) und Makrostruktur (Netz) berücksichtigt werden.

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., von Westarp, F., and König, W. (2003)
Network Effects and Diffusion Theory - Extending Economic Network Analysis
International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research (IJITSR) ,

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In this paper, some of the main results of an interdisciplinary research project on standards are presented and integrated into a single framework of technology diffusion. Based on network effect theory and diffusion theory, we present an agent-based simulation model that extends the traditional economical network perspective by incorporating structural determinants of networks (centrality, topology/density) from sociology and geography and individual decision making on the part of prospective technology users under realistic informational assumptions. Based upon these models, decision behavior in terms of the selection of standards and the diffusion of technological innovations in networks can be described. The model has so far served as both, a tool for developing and evaluating network strategies in practical application like EDI networks or corporate directory service planning as well as for providing theoretical insights into standardization problems and possible solutions.

Weitzel, T., Martin, S., and König, W. (2003)
Straight Through Processing auf XML-Basis im Wertpapiergeschäft
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (45:4), p. 409-420

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Ineffiziente Abwicklungsprozesse, die weltweite Beschleunigung der Abwicklungsgeschwindigkeit sowie steigende Transaktionsvolumina machen eine umfassendere Automatisierung des grenzübergreifenden Wertpapiergeschäfts erforderlich. Verschiedene Standards, meist auf der Grundlage von XML, buhlen um die Rolle als globaler bankenweiter Kommunikationsstandard. Das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrages ist die Analyse des Status Quo des XML-Einsatzes innerhalb und zwischen Banken sowie der Bedeutung und Akzeptanz der Initiativen zur Entwicklung und Etablierung branchenweiter Standards für ein straight through processing. FpML, FIX, SWIFT und ISO 15022 werden als die bedeutendsten Standards angesehen. Viele Banken sehen bei der XML-Verwendung derzeit noch Probleme in der Dokumentengröße (Bandbreite) und -verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit, gehen aber ausnahmslos von XML als zukünftigem Datenformat aus. Insgesamt wird aus inhaltlichen wie politischen Gründen ISO 15022 als zukünftig dominanter Standard erwartet.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
Coordination In Networks: An Economic Equilibrium Analysis
Information Systems and e-Business Management (1:2), p. 189-211

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Networks utilizing modern communication technologies can offer competitive advantages to those using them wisely. But due to the existence of network effects, planning and operating cooperation networks is difficult. In this paper, the strategic situation of individual agents deciding on network participation is analysed. A systematic equilibrium analysis using computer-based simulations reveals principal solution scenarios for network agents and shows that network cooperation problems might frequently be not as difficult to resolve as often feared. In particular, strategic situations are identified showing that a majority of individuals might be better off getting the optimal solution from a central principal and that in many cases simple information intermediation can solve the start-up problem notorious in network economics.

Tesch, T., Fankhauser, P., and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Skalierbare Verarbeitung von XML mit Infonyte-DB
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (44:5), p. 469-475

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Die zunehmende Durchdringung von IT-Architekturen mit XML führt zu immer größeren XML-Datenvolumen. Diese lassen sich mit den zur Verfügung stehenden XML-Werkzeugen nicht immer skalierbar verarbeiten. Das Produkt Infonyte-DB der Infonyte GmbH ist ein modularer XML-Kernel, der sehr ressourcenschonend große XML-Datenvolumen effizient verarbeiten kann.

Beimborn, D., Mintert, S., and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Web Services und ebXML
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (44:3), p. 277-280

Weitzel, T., Son, S., and König, W. (2001)
Infrastrukturentscheidungen in vernetzten Unternehmen: Eine Wirtschaftlichkeitsanalyse am Beispiel von X.500 Directory Services
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (43:4), p. 371-381

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., König, W., and Ladner, F. (2001)
Anwendung der Extensible Markup Language (XML): Konzeption und Implementierung einer WebEDI-Lösung
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (43:3), p. 257-267

Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (1999)
Auswirkung alternativer Koordinationsmechanismen auf die Auswahl von Kommunikationsstandards
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) Volume 2, p.133-151