Veröffentlichungen von Jakob Wirth

Konferenz-Artikel (Peer Reviewed)

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2019)
Privacy and Speech-Disclosure: An Extension of the Privacy Calculus
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

View Abstract
Besides disclosing information via keyboard, disclosing information via speech is on the rise, for example, when speaking with digital assistants such as Amazon Echo. However, when disclosing information via speech, additional information is disclosed such as volume, pitch, tone or accent. With this additional information, further information of the individual can be derived such as age, gender or race. Also, other individuals around can overhear the spoken information. Both may lead to additional privacy risks. However, previous research has mainly considered the privacy risks through disclosure via keyboard, neglecting the mentioned additional privacy risks through disclosure via speech. Therefore, to better understand disclosure via speech, we rely on the basic privacy calculus, yet extend it with further privacy risks through additional information and through other individuals around. We propose a quantitative survey, to shed light on the effect of the additional privacy risks on speech-disclosure and aim to contribute to theory by recommending scholars to include the additional privacy risks when researching on speech-disclosure.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Subjective Norm and the Privacy Calculus: Explaining Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

View Abstract
The privacy calculus postulates that individuals disclose information when benefits outweigh privacy risks. Despite its wide applicability, research has also challenged the privacy calculus. It was shown that individuals disclose information even if benefits do not outweigh privacy risks. Two explanations have been provided: On the one hand, perceptions might lead to a miscalculation of benefits and privacy risks. On the other hand, additional concepts might alter the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. In this research study we provide a third explanation: We suggest subjective norm to be a factor which overlies the effect of benefits and privacy risk. Subjective norm is the perceived social pressure of individuals that other important referents around expect the individual to undertake a certain behavior. To integrate subjective norm into the privacy calculus, we use the theory of reasoned action as our theoretical lens. Based on a survey with 1,466 participants and a covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, we can conclude that subjective norm has the strongest effect on disclosure. The results contribute to theory in the privacy domain, by questioning in how far the privacy calculus can be considered, without taking the environment into consideration.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Justification of Mass Surveillance: A Quantitative Study
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Siegen, Germany

View Abstract
Online mass surveillance by governmental organizations is omnipresent. Even though this results in a loss of privacy and further negative outcomes for individuals, a majority is justifying mass surveillance. Understanding, why this is the case is among others important for individuals, who want to decrease justification of mass surveillance. Therefore, this study aims to uncover the factors that drive this justification. Drawing on system justification theory we consider mass surveillance to be a political arrangement. Five factors were identified that potentially drive individuals' justification of mass surveillance which are among others, perceived privacy control or perceived security. A quantitative study was carried out and the results support most of our hypotheses. With our results, we contribute to the privacy-related area in the domain of IS, by indicating that individuals consider mass surveillance not necessarily to be bad and by giving advice on how to alter the level of justification.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2018)
The Influence of Resignation on the Privacy Calculus in the Context of Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Portsmouth,UK

View Abstract
Individuals conduct a privacy calculus before they disclose information by weighing benefits with privacy risks of disclosure. In line with the privacy calculus, if benefits outweigh privacy risks individuals disclose information, otherwise they do not. However, research has also challenged the privacy calculus because individuals also disclose information even in light of low benefits and high privacy risks. Given explanations refer to 1) altering the perceptions of benefits and privacy risks or 2) altering the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. Whereas studies focusing on the first part have provided explanations for why the privacy calculus is sometimes not confirmed, studies on the second part do not do so. This study is therefore considering the second part and is integrating an individual's level of resignation to protect one's privacy in the context of social networking sites. We consider resignation as a reaction of individuals to given privacy threats. Results show that when including resignation the effect of benefits becomes stronger and the effect of privacy risks becomes weaker. Implications for theory include that resignation helps in explaining why individuals disclose information even when only small benefits and high privacy risks are present.

Wirth, J. (2018)
Dependent Variables in the Privacy-Related Field: A Descriptive Literature Review
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, Hawaii

View Abstract
As privacy is an ongoing issue of both society and research, there is a tremendous amount of research on privacy in the domain of information systems. A plethora of these studies has been conducted on privacy-related dependent variables. This descriptive literature review summarizes used dependent variables and gives a detailed analysis of the variables including the research setting, used theories, used methodologies, and used research designs. Results show among others that 1) some dependent variables are under-researched, 2) the majority is using intention to disclose as their dependent variable, 3) many articles are not grounded in a basic underlying theory and 4) the majority is using cross-sectional surveys as their research design. Based on the results several recommendations for future research are given, including to use certain dependent variables, to focus on actual disclosure behaviour and to conduct longitudinal studies.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2017)
The Influence of Resignation on the Privacy Calculus: A Research Approach
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Information Security and Privacy (SIGSEC) Workshop on Information Security and Privacy (WISP), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
A majority of individuals have resigned in protecting their privacy. They think that privacy risks are inevitable and there is nothing they can do about it. We suggest that this is a reason why individuals disclose information and how the effect of privacy risks and benefits on intention to disclose differs.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Understanding Privacy Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal through Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Nominated for the Most Innovative Short Paper Award

View Abstract
Individuals differ in their motivation to protect their privacy. When facing privacy threats, individuals evaluate the threat (threat appraisal) and the extent they can cope with it (coping appraisal) which, in turn, influences their protection motivation. Hence, better understanding both appraisals helps us to better understand an important part of privacy behavior. We introduce the concept of mindfulness to explain privacy threat and coping appraisals. Mindfulness is hypothesized to increase both, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. A quantitative study is to be carried out to examine our hypotheses. We expect to contribute to the privacy literature by demonstrating how different levels of threat appraisal and coping appraisal are formed.

Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Personality and Technostress: Theorizing the Influence of IT Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Even though IT use has numerous benefits for users and organizations, such as improved performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience IT use as a source of stress, i.e. technostress. Since such technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads individuals to perceive it. Based on psychology research suggesting user personality as a cause of stress perceptions, this research uses the Theory of Personality to investigate how user personality influences technostress. In developing our research model, we focus on the dynamic, context-specific trait IT mindfulness and on the degree to which this trait determines the perception of technostress. This study contributes to technostress research by revealing that user personality in general and IT mindfulness in particular are determinants of technostress, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from perceiving technostress.

Wirth, J. (2017)
Strength of Ties as an Antecedent of Privacy Concerns: A Qualitative Research Study
Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Boston, MA, USA

View Abstract
Previous research has indicated that the relationship between individuals might influence privacy concerns of individuals. In particular, the tie strength between the individual who is about to disclose information (discloser) and the individual who is potentially receiving the information (potential co-owner), might determine privacy concerns of the discloser. The discloser and the potential co-owner might be tied up strongly, weakly or not at all. We set up a qualitative research study, asking disclosers in how far tie strength determines their privacy concerns. The results prove that weak ties mainly increase privacy concerns of disclosers, whereas strong and absent ties mainly only increase privacy concerns in certain situations. We therefore contribute to the under-researched field of antecedents of privacy concerns by presenting strength of tie as an additional antecedent.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2017)
Why individuals switch to using mobile payment: A migration-theoretic, empirical study
Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Boston, MA, USA

View Abstract
With mobile payment, individuals can buy goods and services through the use of a mobile device and wireless technology. Still, although the usage of mobile payment provides several advantages, such as a more convenient and faster paying-process, it is hardly used. Individuals rather stick with their current payment method, such as cash, EC card or credit card. In this study, we therefore try to find out, what factors would bring individuals to switch from their current payment method to mobile payment. We rely on the pull-push-mooring framework to depict the migration process from the current payment method to mobile payment. The results prove that dissatisfaction with the current payment method has a rather low influence on the intention to switch to mobile payment in comparison with other factors such as perceived usefulness or alternative attractiveness. Furthermore, switching costs have a negative influence on the intention to switch to mobile payment.

Wirth, J. (2017)
Individuals' Beliefs and Actions in Respect to Privacy: A Research Agenda
Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium WI, St. Gallen, CH

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Dürr, S. (2016)
A Temptation to Stalk: The Impact of Curiosity on User Acceptance of Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Diego (CA)

View Abstract
Social networking sites occupy increasing fields of daily life and act as important communication channels today. But recent research also discusses the dark side of these sites, which expresses in form of stress, envy, addiction or even depression. Nevertheless, there must be a reason why people use social networking sites, even though they face related risks. One reason is human curiosity that tempts users to behave like this. The research on hand presents the impact of curiosity on user acceptance of social networking sites, which is theorized and empirically evaluated by using the technology acceptance model and a quantitative study among Facebook users. It further reveals that especially two types of human curiosity, epistemic and interpersonal curiosity, influence perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment, and with it technology acceptance.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Influence of laziness on data disclosure: an empirical investigation
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
"Smart devices think you're 'too lazy' to opt out of privacy Defaults". This was the headline of a recent news article indicating that individuals might be too lazy to stop disclosing their private data and therefore to care about their information privacy (IP). IP is an ongoing topic and has become even more important since Edward Snowden has shown that government agencies examine all digital communication worldwide. Nevertheless, research has been found out that individuals still disclose their data although they are concerned about their IP which is commonly referred to the IP paradox. In this research in progress we will research on the question whether individuals might just be too lazy to take care about their IP by not disclosing their data as it was indicated by recent news articles. Results will have implications for the IP research stream by better explaining data disclosure behavior and hence also contribute to the research stream about the IP paradox.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
A work system theory perspective on user satisfaction: Using multiple case studies to propose a work system success model
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
In this paper we use multiple case studies and apply work system theory to them to better understand user satisfaction in each case. Based on the IS success model and the three case studies we conclude that beside the classic investigated objects information and technology as proposed by the IS success model also additional component of a work system influence user satisfaction. In particular we identified that work practices and also the relation between work practices, information and technologies have an influence on user satisfaction. We also revealed products/services and customers as potential drivers of user satisfaction and analyzed individual, environmental, strategical, and infrastructure characteristics as important contextual factors. Therefore, we suggest a work system success model for an extended understanding of user satisfaction that should better guide organizations when designing and implementing information systems.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Drivers and Consequences of Frustration When Using Social Networking Services: A Quantitative Analysis of Facebook Users
Proceedings of the 21th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Puerto Rico

View Abstract
In this study drivers and consequences of frustration, a negative emotion when using information technology (IT), are theorized and empirically evaluated in a social networking services (SNS) usage context. For example, when users are frustrated by using SNS they might stop using these services. As the number of users mainly determines the value of SNS this paper focuses on frustration while using SNS. It is assumed that both technology and social aspects of SNS usage determine whether users feel frustrated. Empirical evidence can be provided that perceived enjoyment, envy, information overload, and social overload are antecedents of the sentiment frustration. It is also argued that frustration while using SNS will lead to dissatisfaction and discontinued usage. Based on the empirical evidence for this cohesion the paper discusses its theoretical contribution in terms of that discontinuous usage behavior is a coping strategy applied by users to minimize the frustration sentiment.

Wirth, J., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Using a work system theory perspective to review 25 years of technology acceptance research: proposing a research agenda
Proceedings of the 2014 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
IT projects still often fail and do not generate the expected value due to the lack of user acceptance. From the point of view of the work system theory (WST) this might be grounded in the fact that in current technology acceptance research IT is treated as a technical artifact and not as part of a work system. Therefore, we set up a literature review to reflect 25 years of research since the introduction of its most prominent model to discuss in how far a work system theory perspective on technology acceptance research might help to explore possible research gaps. Our results reveal that the technology acceptance model (TAM) is still the predominant model in technology acceptance research and therefore the classic components of a work system namely participants, information and technology and the relation between these components have been researched very well. However, we found out that work practices and also the relation between work practices, participants, information and IT in relation to technology acceptance, which can have an influence on technology acceptance as well, have rather been neglected in current research. We also identified products/services and customers as potential drivers of user acceptance. We derive six propositions that can be further theorized and evaluated by technology acceptance research. Consequently, we conclude that a WST perspective on technology acceptance research is appropriate to discuss the acceptance of IT, which is part of a work system in which participants produce products or services for customers.