Veröffentlichungen von Dr. Christian Maier

Konferenz-Artikel (Peer Reviewed)

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Racheva, A., and Maier, C. (2019)
Use Cases for Conversational Agents: An Interview-based Study
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 25th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Cancún, Mexico

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This study explores use cases for conversational agents using an interview-based study with 50 individuals. We report an analysis that illustrates which conversational agents designs are perceived as useful or enjoyable by individuals and are therefore a predictor for adoption and diffusion of conversational agents in both private and professional contexts. The results of the interviews are classified into seven use case categories: Use of conversational agents for information retrieval, smart home control, goods and services, car and navigation, music and entertainment, work and office and other. However, the results also indicate that in order to improve perceived usefulness, conversational agents must improve and become "more intelligent". Though, concerns such as privacy issues and transparency should be addressed by companies in order to ensure a sustainable development and diffusion. Hence, we conclude an agenda for research and designers of conversational agents to focus on use cases and conversational agents designs that provide the breeding ground for adoption and diffusion.

Pflügner, K. and Maier, C. (2019)
Mitigating Technostress: An Empirical Study of Mindfulness and Techno-Stressors.
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 25th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Cancún, Mexico

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The purpose of the current study is to examine ways for individuals to mitigate technostress. Practical observations indicate the importance of mindfulness for mitigating stress. Therefore, we study the effect of mindfulness on techno-stressors by relying on the theoretical model of mindfulness by Shapiro and colleagues. A self-rating questionnaire was distributed to employees of different companies, industries, business units, and hierarchical levels. The results of 134 responses reveal that mindfulness leads to lower levels of four out of five techno-stressors. The study contributes that mindfulness is a powerful resource in technologized work environments for the effective and healthy dealing with technologies as well as the mitigation of techno-stressors and that techno-stressors need to be investigated separately. Suggestions for the application of the research results and the development of preventive measures are provided.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Gubler, F. (2019)
Chatbot acceptance in healthcare: explaining user adoption of conversational agents for disease diagnosis
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

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In this research, we develop a research model explaining the adoption of conversational agents for disease diagnosis. Healthcare is challenged by a parallel increasing demand for healthcare services and a decreasing supply of healthcare professionals. Mobile Health is proposed to overcome geographical, temporal, and organizational barriers of healthcare services. Conversational agents (CA), i.e. software programs that interact with users through natural language, are developed that are even able to diagnose a disease based on an individuals' input using a chat interface. However, these systems face an adoption challenge. To understand that, we use UTAUT2 as theoretical lens and 35 semi-structured interviews with potential users of a CA for disease diagnosis. Based on that we propose a research model that contains (1) well-known UTAUT2 factors (performance and effort expectancy, facilitating conditions), (2) re-defined other factors to better fit the context (social influence, price value, habit), and (3) newly identified ones (privacy risk expectancy, trust in provider and system, compatibility, experience in e-diagnosis, access to health system). We also reveal that hedonic motivation is not relevant for CA adoption. The newly proposed model addresses research gaps in CA research in general, but also in mHealth and especially the use of CA in healthcare research in particular. We also discuss rather general implications for technology acceptance research and provide some suggestions for providers of CA in healthcare to increase the diffusion rates of these systems.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2019)
Privacy and Speech-Disclosure: An Extension of the Privacy Calculus
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

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Besides disclosing information via keyboard, disclosing information via speech is on the rise, for example, when speaking with digital assistants such as Amazon Echo. However, when disclosing information via speech, additional information is disclosed such as volume, pitch, tone or accent. With this additional information, further information of the individual can be derived such as age, gender or race. Also, other individuals around can overhear the spoken information. Both may lead to additional privacy risks. However, previous research has mainly considered the privacy risks through disclosure via keyboard, neglecting the mentioned additional privacy risks through disclosure via speech. Therefore, to better understand disclosure via speech, we rely on the basic privacy calculus, yet extend it with further privacy risks through additional information and through other individuals around. We propose a quantitative survey, to shed light on the effect of the additional privacy risks on speech-disclosure and aim to contribute to theory by recommending scholars to include the additional privacy risks when researching on speech-disclosure.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Subjective Norm and the Privacy Calculus: Explaining Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm-Uppsala, Sweden

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The privacy calculus postulates that individuals disclose information when benefits outweigh privacy risks. Despite its wide applicability, research has also challenged the privacy calculus. It was shown that individuals disclose information even if benefits do not outweigh privacy risks. Two explanations have been provided: On the one hand, perceptions might lead to a miscalculation of benefits and privacy risks. On the other hand, additional concepts might alter the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. In this research study we provide a third explanation: We suggest subjective norm to be a factor which overlies the effect of benefits and privacy risk. Subjective norm is the perceived social pressure of individuals that other important referents around expect the individual to undertake a certain behavior. To integrate subjective norm into the privacy calculus, we use the theory of reasoned action as our theoretical lens. Based on a survey with 1,466 participants and a covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, we can conclude that subjective norm has the strongest effect on disclosure. The results contribute to theory in the privacy domain, by questioning in how far the privacy calculus can be considered, without taking the environment into consideration.

Rockmann, R. and Maier, C. (2019)
On the Fit in Fitness Apps: Studying the Interaction of Motivational Affordances and Users' Goal Orientations in Affecting the Benefits Gained
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Siegen, Germany

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Lacking regular physical activity is a pertaining problem in most western societies. Fitness apps are positioned to address this issue by offering motivational affordances to the user, which aim to enhance motivation and increase physical activity: self-monitoring, rewards, and social comparison. Yet research provides inconclusive results about their effectiveness. For clarification, this paper draws upon Achievement Goal Theory and theorizes how and why motivational affordances vary in dependence of users' motivation-relevant goals in supporting motivation and physical activity. Empirical validation among 283 fitness app users generally supports that motivational affordances need to be congruent with users' underlying goal orientations to achieve the benefits. As such, this paper contributes to fitness app research by resolving prior inconsistencies, offers a theorizing on motivational affordances and individual motivation-relevant differences, and aids practice in designing fitness apps.

Pflügner, K., Mattke, J., and Maier, C. (2019)
Who is Stressed by Using ICTs? A Qualitative Comparison Analysis with the Big Five Personality Traits to Understand Technostress
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Siegen, Germany
Best Paper Award

View Abstract
The purpose of the current study is to reveal personality profiles that predispose to the experience of techno-stressors within an organizational setting. These insights are useful because techno-stressors lead to considerable costs and adverse health effects. We use the theoretical lens of the transaction-based model of stress to study the effect of the Big Five personality traits on techno-stressors. We distributed a self-rating questionnaire among 221 individuals and analyzed data using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparison Analysis. The results reveal that six different personality profiles lead to the experience of techno-stressors. The study contributes to research by revealing that personality traits need to be investigated in profiles when studying their role in technostress and that different profiles of the Big Five predispose to techno-stressors. The results are useful for practitioners as they allow the prevention of techno-stressors and negative consequences by detecting users who are at risk at an early stage.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2019)
Justification of Mass Surveillance: A Quantitative Study
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Siegen, Germany

View Abstract
Online mass surveillance by governmental organizations is omnipresent. Even though this results in a loss of privacy and further negative outcomes for individuals, a majority is justifying mass surveillance. Understanding, why this is the case is among others important for individuals, who want to decrease justification of mass surveillance. Therefore, this study aims to uncover the factors that drive this justification. Drawing on system justification theory we consider mass surveillance to be a political arrangement. Five factors were identified that potentially drive individuals' justification of mass surveillance which are among others, perceived privacy control or perceived security. A quantitative study was carried out and the results support most of our hypotheses. With our results, we contribute to the privacy-related area in the domain of IS, by indicating that individuals consider mass surveillance not necessarily to be bad and by giving advice on how to alter the level of justification.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How do Users Respond to Technostress? An Empirical Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Coping
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, USA

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As technostress costs organizations financial resources and threatens the well-being, it is essential for users as well as companies to manage technostress. To do so, users cope proactive by removing or reducing techno-stressors or reactive by restoring users' emotional state. However, literature is limited by explaining what factors lead to proactive and reactive coping in a short-term technostress situation. The present paper addresses these shortcomings by investigating in how techno-stressors and emotional exhaustion influences proactive and reactive coping. Results based on 110 users show that users respond to techno-stressors in a proactive way, whereas users reactively respond to emotional exhaustion. In addition, proactive coping is stronger affected by techno-stressors, and reactive coping is stronger affected by emotional exhaustion. Thereby, we contribute to technostress and coping literature by demonstrating how users respond in short-term technostress situation and highlight the importance of time in the present context.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., and Maier, C. (2019)
Paid, Owned and Earned Media: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis revealing Attributes Influencing Consumer's Brand Attitude in Social Media
Proceedings of the 51th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Hawai

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This paper examines how companies can use paid media (referring to sponsored posts), owned media (company posts) and earned media (influencer post) to create a positive brand attitude. Based on the advertising value model, this paper takes a configurational approach and uses fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The analysis reveals a typology of five types of media, which influence consumers' brand attitude positively. We contribute to research by providing a typology of paid, owned and earned media, which can guide companies to create a positive brand attitude.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Oehlhorn, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
A Social Comparison Perspective to Study Negative Effects of Telework
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, CA, USA

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Telework is indisputably important for establishing a positive work-life-balance for employees. Teleworkers are less stressed and more satisfied by work implying turnover intentions that are below half of those of regular office workers. However, recent practical indications suggest that there is also a dark side of telework, meaning that telework has adverse effects for office workers, who, among others, develop feelings of envy. To study these adverse effects for office workers, we use social comparison theory and suggest that a disparity of telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors. In developing our research model, we posit that office workers become envy, dissatisfied with their job, develop turnover intentions and perform worse. An empirical study with 269 employees working in one organization with telework arrangements confirms the hypothesized relationships. Therewith, this study contributes to telework research by providing an interpersonal perspective on telework and revealing that there is a dark side of telework for office workers, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from developing adverse emotions and behaviors.

Mattke, J., Hund, A., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Will the real Value of Blockchain Please Stand Up? Lessons Learned from Multiple Blockchain Projects
Proceedings of the MISQE Special Issue Workshop, San Francisco
(Research in Progress)

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Müller, L., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Typology of User Resistance Behavior: A Study Explaining Why Individuals Resist Using Bitcoin
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), San Francisco

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Bitcoin could revolutionize the system of payments, yet most individuals do not use Bitcoin as a means of payment. As the success of Bitcoin as a means of payment depends upon a high number of individuals using Bitcoin, this study examines why individuals resist Bitcoin as a means of payment. We draw on the status quo bias perspective and take a configurational approach, using fuzzy set qualitative comparison analysis (fsQCA). The analysis reveals a typology of four types of resistant users, who resist Bitcoin as a means of payment: the regret driven resistant user, the uncertainty driven resistant user, the transition cost driven resistant user and the cost driven resistant user. We contribute to resistance research and Bitcoin research by providing a typology of resistant users and identifying equifinal configurations of influencing factors leading to individual's resistance to Bitcoin as a means of payment.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2018)
The Influence of Resignation on the Privacy Calculus in the Context of Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Portsmouth,UK

View Abstract
Individuals conduct a privacy calculus before they disclose information by weighing benefits with privacy risks of disclosure. In line with the privacy calculus, if benefits outweigh privacy risks individuals disclose information, otherwise they do not. However, research has also challenged the privacy calculus because individuals also disclose information even in light of low benefits and high privacy risks. Given explanations refer to 1) altering the perceptions of benefits and privacy risks or 2) altering the effect of benefits and privacy risks on disclosure. Whereas studies focusing on the first part have provided explanations for why the privacy calculus is sometimes not confirmed, studies on the second part do not do so. This study is therefore considering the second part and is integrating an individual's level of resignation to protect one's privacy in the context of social networking sites. We consider resignation as a reaction of individuals to given privacy threats. Results show that when including resignation the effect of benefits becomes stronger and the effect of privacy risks becomes weaker. Implications for theory include that resignation helps in explaining why individuals disclose information even when only small benefits and high privacy risks are present.

Müller, L., Mattke, J., and Maier, C. (2018)
Online Advertising Research Through the Ad Delivery Process: A Literature Review
Proceedings of the ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference

Müller, L., Mattke, J., and Maier, C. (2018)
#Sponsored #Ad: Exploring the Effect of Influencer Marketing on Purchase Intention
Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS)

Mattke, J., Müller, L., and Maier, C. (2018)
Why do Individuals Avoid Social Media Advertising: A Qualitative Comparison Analysis Study
Proceedings of the 26th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS)

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Companies spend billions of dollars in social media advertising, yet some social media users actively avoid social media advertising for instance by scrolling over ads. To understand that, this research builds upon the advertising avoidance model and applies a qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to identify configurations of perceptions of avoidance. We reveal disruption, distraction, excessiveness and lack of incentive as perceptions that are necessary - yet not sufficient for evoking the avoidance of social media advertising. Furthermore, we reveal three distinct configurations of perceptions that are sufficient and lead to avoidance of social media advertising. This research contributes by uncovering the influence of configurations on social media advertising avoidance and companies can use these findings to reduce the effect of social media users actively avoiding social media advertising.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., Maier, C., and Graser, H. (2018)
Avoidance of Social Media Advertising: A Latent Profile Analysis
Proceedings of the ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference

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Some individuals actively avoid social media advertising, for instance by scrolling over ads or ignoring ads. Therefore, this research aims to identify distinct profiles of individuals avoiding social media advertising. We build upon the advertising avoidance model and take a person-centered approach, using latent profile analysis to identify different profiles of individuals, who avoid social media advertising. We identified three distinct profiles of individuals, differing in their perception and their level of avoidance: unconcerned users, playful avoiding users and goal-oriented users. We contribute by characterizing individuals avoiding SMA, so that companies can use these profiles to derive different strategies how to deal with different profiles of individuals.

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Job Seekers' Acceptance of Job Recommender Systems: Results of an Empirical Study
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, Hawaii
Nominated for Best Paper

View Abstract
Based on UTAUT2 and the importance of trust to explain user behavior in relation to recommender systems, we focus on job recommender systems by developing and validating a job recommender system acceptance model. The results of our empirical, survey-based study with 440 job seekers indicate that beside performance expectancy and habit, trust is among the three most important determinants and it is especially relevant for women, passive job seekers and those without experience in using job recommender systems. The paper extends general trust and recommender system research by revealing three moderators for the trust and intention relationship. It contextualizes the UTAUT2 by incorporating trust as an antecedent of a consumer's intention to use and by revealing three moderating effects for this relationship. Hence, it is the basis for further studies investigating the acceptance of job recommender system, which has rather been neglected by prior research.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2017)
Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Employer Branding for the Female IT Workforce to Counteract Skill Shortage and Support Diversity
Proceedings of the MISQE Special Issue workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seoul, South Korea

Neugebauer, P., Maier, C., and Bumann, A. (2017)
Benchmark Proposal for Multi-Tenancy in the Database Layer
Proceedings of the 9th ZEUS Workshop, Lugano, Switzerland

View Abstract
The cloud is often utilized with the hope to increase the IT budget efficiency. The cloud service model Software as a Service in combination with its key feature multi-tenancy shines here brightly, but its adoption is complicated by the multiplicity of possible solutions. In detail, multiple multi-tenancy implementations meet many possible database systems requiring a reliable comparison to find the optimal solution. This article briefly explains multi-tenancy, its benefits and implementations. It also indicates through the results of a literature review that no benchmark for multi-tenancy implementations exists. It proposes and describes a benchmark and its setup to gain reliable results of the disk space usage and performance.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Engagement with Social Ads: Explaining the Influence of Herding in Social Media Advertising
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
Social media uses social ads that are enriched with social media likes (SMLs). Yet, existing research on advertising cannot explain how SMLs influence individuals' engagement with social ads. We build upon herding literature and the theory of the strengths of ties and explain how the observation of social ads enriched with SMLs influences individuals' intention to engage with the social ad. This paper explains the effect 1) of the pure number of SMLs of a social ad and 2) the effect of SMLs from strongly or weakly tied friends on individuals' engagement with social ads. We thereby contribute to a better understanding why individuals click on social ads and provide practical implications for social media marketing' campaigns.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2017)
The Influence of Resignation on the Privacy Calculus: A Research Approach
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Information Security and Privacy (SIGSEC) Workshop on Information Security and Privacy (WISP), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

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A majority of individuals have resigned in protecting their privacy. They think that privacy risks are inevitable and there is nothing they can do about it. We suggest that this is a reason why individuals disclose information and how the effect of privacy risks and benefits on intention to disclose differs.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Understanding Privacy Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal through Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Nominated for the Most Innovative Short Paper Award

View Abstract
Individuals differ in their motivation to protect their privacy. When facing privacy threats, individuals evaluate the threat (threat appraisal) and the extent they can cope with it (coping appraisal) which, in turn, influences their protection motivation. Hence, better understanding both appraisals helps us to better understand an important part of privacy behavior. We introduce the concept of mindfulness to explain privacy threat and coping appraisals. Mindfulness is hypothesized to increase both, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. A quantitative study is to be carried out to examine our hypotheses. We expect to contribute to the privacy literature by demonstrating how different levels of threat appraisal and coping appraisal are formed.

Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Personality and Technostress: Theorizing the Influence of IT Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Even though IT use has numerous benefits for users and organizations, such as improved performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience IT use as a source of stress, i.e. technostress. Since such technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads individuals to perceive it. Based on psychology research suggesting user personality as a cause of stress perceptions, this research uses the Theory of Personality to investigate how user personality influences technostress. In developing our research model, we focus on the dynamic, context-specific trait IT mindfulness and on the degree to which this trait determines the perception of technostress. This study contributes to technostress research by revealing that user personality in general and IT mindfulness in particular are determinants of technostress, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from perceiving technostress.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Analyzing and managing IT-induced work system changes
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Teaching Case)

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This teaching case explores the challenges of changing a work system by implementing an information system (IS). The case describes the approach implemented by "The Bank", a financial service provider, when it implemented a new financial and banking IS "SysOne", and thus fundamentally changed its work systems. The case is a real business scenario, which bases on case study research conducted by our research team and it adapts recent theoretical advances in the IS implementation literature. Using this teaching case should encourage students to discuss IS implementations from a general "system thinking" rather than a "tool thinking" perspective. An IS implementation is not just a new tool, it is a change of employees' work systems. This teaching case should guide students to extend the efforts implemented to guide employees when implementing an IS beyond the technology to focus on the major IT-induced work system changes and thereby enable successful technochange.

Müller, L., Mattke, J., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
The Curse of Mobile Marketing: A Mixed Methods Study on Individuals' Switch to Mobile Ad Blockers
Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, Korea

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Mobile marketing investment continues to rise steadily even though online publishers have not realized the desired returns, due to increased use of mobile ad blockers. In this study, we take a mixed methods approach, embracing qualitative, quantitative and configurational approaches, to understand why individuals switch to using mobile ad blockers. We draw on the pull-push-mooring model to evaluate what configurations of pull, push and mooring factors influence individuals' decision to switch to using mobile ad blockers, identifying four distinct configurations of influencing factors resulting in the intention to switch. Furthermore, we specify the unequal effects of influencing factors and validate the quality of our results. Our research deepens the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of switching to mobile ad blockers and provides valuable implications to online publishers facing the challenge of rising mobile ad blocker use.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., and Maier, C. (2017)
Why do individuals block online ads? An explorative study to explain the use of ad blockers
Proceedings of the Twenty-third Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Boston, MA, USA

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Ad blockers are a challenging trend for online publishers, as an increasing number of individuals use ad blockers. To understand why individuals switch to the use of ad blockers, this research presents empirical findings that explain why individuals develop switching intentions. Based on migration theory, we explain that individuals' intention to switch to the use of ad blockers are grounded in factors that pull individuals to use ad blockers, push them away from not using ad blockers, and mooring factors either hinder switching intention or determine how pull and push factors are translated in switching intentions. We conducted 42 interviews and identified relative user experience, increased performance, improved privacy protection and improved security as pull factors, dissatisfaction with online ads as push factor and computer self-efficacy as mooring factor. This contributes to theory by providing an explanation why individuals develop to ad blocker users.

Wirth, J. and Maier, C. (2017)
Why individuals switch to using mobile payment: A migration-theoretic, empirical study
Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Boston, MA, USA

View Abstract
With mobile payment, individuals can buy goods and services through the use of a mobile device and wireless technology. Still, although the usage of mobile payment provides several advantages, such as a more convenient and faster paying-process, it is hardly used. Individuals rather stick with their current payment method, such as cash, EC card or credit card. In this study, we therefore try to find out, what factors would bring individuals to switch from their current payment method to mobile payment. We rely on the pull-push-mooring framework to depict the migration process from the current payment method to mobile payment. The results prove that dissatisfaction with the current payment method has a rather low influence on the intention to switch to mobile payment in comparison with other factors such as perceived usefulness or alternative attractiveness. Furthermore, switching costs have a negative influence on the intention to switch to mobile payment.

Oehlhorn, C., Laumer, S., and Maier, C. (2017)
About Well-considered Decisions, Favorable Alternatives and Sudden Ideas: A Qualitative Research to Identify Beliefs that Influence Women to Study Information Systems in Germany
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , St. Gallen, CH

View Abstract
Our research reveals motivational beliefs that influenced the decision to study information systems of female students in Germany. We apply a qualitative methodology in form of narrative interviews and interviewed 21 female students at a German university. On the basis of the theory of planned behavior, our results expose that a range of different beliefs exist which influenced the women's decision. We are able to expand the results of previous studies to the German context regarding especially normative beliefs, alternate choices or prior experiences dealing with information technology. In addition, we also uncover a couple of new beliefs that had not been revealed before.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Is Information Technology Solely to Blame? The Influence of Work-home Conflict Dimensions on Work Exhaustion
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

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Using information technology (IT) can blur the boundaries between work and private life and contribute to an IT-based work-home conflict (WHC). Organizations and governments treat IT usage as the main source of WHC and have implemented laws and policies to restrict access to IT to reduce WHC. In this paper, we investigate the effect of IT usage-related and work-based dimensions of WHC: time-, strain-, and behavior-based WHC. Understanding the dimensions of WHC can help organizations and governments move beyond IS usage restrictions to identify and prevent the negative consequences of each dimension for employees, such as work exhaustion. We distinguish IT- from work-based dimensions and theorize their effect on work exhaustion. The results of a study of 542 employees show that the IT-based dimension of WHC only indirectly influences work exhaustion, whereas time- and strain-based WHC contribute significantly and directly to work exhaustion. Implications for research and practice are suggested.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The influence of change-related stress on user resistance when an enterprise system is implemented: a longitudinal field study
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
When an enterprise system is implemented employees often respond with user resistance behavior. As employees work environment are changed significantly they also experience stress during an implementation. However, neither technostress nor user resistance research have focused on the stress related to the change induced by an enterprise system implementation. Hence, it is not known how change-related stress results in user resistance behavior and thus prevents organizations from managing the implementation process sufficiently. Therefore, we provide a research model that theorizes the influence of change characteristics, such as change complexity, switching costs and switching benefits, on change-related work overload and role ambiguity as change stressors, which in turn determines employees change-induced exhaustion. When this exhaustion is perceived as a threat user resistance behavior will occur. Using a longitudinal field study with 273 employees during an enterprise system implementation we provide empirical evidence for the proposed model.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Dürr, S. (2016)
A Temptation to Stalk: The Impact of Curiosity on User Acceptance of Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Diego (CA)

View Abstract
Social networking sites occupy increasing fields of daily life and act as important communication channels today. But recent research also discusses the dark side of these sites, which expresses in form of stress, envy, addiction or even depression. Nevertheless, there must be a reason why people use social networking sites, even though they face related risks. One reason is human curiosity that tempts users to behave like this. The research on hand presents the impact of curiosity on user acceptance of social networking sites, which is theorized and empirically evaluated by using the technology acceptance model and a quantitative study among Facebook users. It further reveals that especially two types of human curiosity, epistemic and interpersonal curiosity, influence perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment, and with it technology acceptance.

Dürr, S., Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2016)
A Literature Review on Enterprise Social Media Collaboration in Virtual Teams: Challenges, Determinants, Implications and Impacts
Proceedings of the ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Washington D.C.

View Abstract
This literature review focusses research on Enterprise Social Media (ESM) and its use within virtual teams. The paper includes results from 38 articles outlining the existing body of knowledge and showing the steady progress in this research field. Previous literature often thematizes the external use of social media and technological aspects, but this research concentrates on the internal collaborative use, its challenges, related determinants, managerial implications and its impact on business. Existing research illustrates key factors in each of the previously mentioned subjects. However, as research should consider the entire field, a research agenda for further studies in this ESM topic is developed.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
What happens when users are not able to perform coping mechanisms? An investigation of the habituation process
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
In some situations individuals are unable to perform coping mechanisms against technostress because of low controllability and resources. Thereby, they are repeatedly exposed to technology-related stimuli named IT-stressors, which should result in several user responses such as emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and poor performance. However, in these situations individuals might habituate to the IT-stressor such that the user responses are mitigated. We assume that the influence of the IT-stressor on emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and performance is moderated by this habituation effect. Therefore, we propose an experimental setting in which individuals are repeatedly exposed to a computer breakdown to which they might get used to over time. During the experiment, we draw on self-reporting and objective methods to capture user responses after each exposure to the IT-stressor, in order to analyze the change of the user responses across time. Thereby, we expect the results to contribute to technostress and coping literature.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Implicit Attitudes: An Investigation of Implicit Attitudes and Their Influences on Behavioral Intentions
Proceedings of the 14th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied antecedence of user behavior. Most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes. These unconscious automatic associations individuals make between an attitude object and its favorable or unfavorable evaluation are not taken into consideration in IS acceptance and usage literature. Hence, the present research zooms into the attitude construct by distinguishing between explicit and implicit attitudes and investigates their influences on behavioral intentions. Based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) and a survey, we conducted a study that captures explicit and implicit attitudes, to evaluate the research model. The research reveals that explicit and implicit attitudes are distinct constructs and that not only explicit but also implicit attitudes have an effect on behavioral intention towards using the IS.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Influence of laziness on data disclosure: an empirical investigation
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
"Smart devices think you're 'too lazy' to opt out of privacy Defaults". This was the headline of a recent news article indicating that individuals might be too lazy to stop disclosing their private data and therefore to care about their information privacy (IP). IP is an ongoing topic and has become even more important since Edward Snowden has shown that government agencies examine all digital communication worldwide. Nevertheless, research has been found out that individuals still disclose their data although they are concerned about their IP which is commonly referred to the IP paradox. In this research in progress we will research on the question whether individuals might just be too lazy to take care about their IP by not disclosing their data as it was indicated by recent news articles. Results will have implications for the IP research stream by better explaining data disclosure behavior and hence also contribute to the research stream about the IP paradox.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
A work system theory perspective on user satisfaction: Using multiple case studies to propose a work system success model
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
In this paper we use multiple case studies and apply work system theory to them to better understand user satisfaction in each case. Based on the IS success model and the three case studies we conclude that beside the classic investigated objects information and technology as proposed by the IS success model also additional component of a work system influence user satisfaction. In particular we identified that work practices and also the relation between work practices, information and technologies have an influence on user satisfaction. We also revealed products/services and customers as potential drivers of user satisfaction and analyzed individual, environmental, strategical, and infrastructure characteristics as important contextual factors. Therefore, we suggest a work system success model for an extended understanding of user satisfaction that should better guide organizations when designing and implementing information systems.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Successfully Implementing Enterprise Content Management: Lessons Learnt from a Financial Service Provider
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Fort Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Information overload and content chaos are major challenges for organizations, as they have to deal with a high amount of unstructured content. With enterprise content management (ECM) systems, a technological solution is developed to deal with such challenges; however, these systems can only provide value to an organization if they are implemented in the context of an ECM strategy. In this paper the implementation of a new ECM strategy at a financial service provider is described to illustrate how organizations can on the one side design an ECM strategy that reduces information overload and content chaos and on the other side implement it successfully. The four keys for successfully implementing ECM based on the lessons learnt derived are an ECM team leading the change process, the acceptance of users by meeting the organizations business needs, a metadata taxonomy enabling dynamic content delivery, and an effective change management from the outset.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Drivers and Consequences of Frustration When Using Social Networking Services: A Quantitative Analysis of Facebook Users
Proceedings of the 21th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Puerto Rico

View Abstract
In this study drivers and consequences of frustration, a negative emotion when using information technology (IT), are theorized and empirically evaluated in a social networking services (SNS) usage context. For example, when users are frustrated by using SNS they might stop using these services. As the number of users mainly determines the value of SNS this paper focuses on frustration while using SNS. It is assumed that both technology and social aspects of SNS usage determine whether users feel frustrated. Empirical evidence can be provided that perceived enjoyment, envy, information overload, and social overload are antecedents of the sentiment frustration. It is also argued that frustration while using SNS will lead to dissatisfaction and discontinued usage. Based on the empirical evidence for this cohesion the paper discusses its theoretical contribution in terms of that discontinuous usage behavior is a coping strategy applied by users to minimize the frustration sentiment.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Extending Moore's Exhaustion Model: Including Further Dimensions of Burnout and Investigating Their Influence on Turnover Intention Among IT Professionals
Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Newport Beach, California USA

View Abstract
This research focuses on burnout as a driver of turnover intention amongst IT professionals. We extend Moore's exhaustion model by including further dimensions of burnout into the model, namely depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. The effect of stressors on these dimensions and the original dimension of emotional exhaustion is investigated, as is their influence on turnover intention among IT professional. Results based on a data sample of 154 IT professionals show that not only emotional exhaustion but also depersonalization leads to turnover intention. This outcome cannot be neglected when trying to reduce turnover intention in an organization in order to maintain competitive advantages. Moreover, while the stressors suggested by Moore influence emotional exhaustion, they only slightly explain the dimensions of depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. This indicates that these two dimensions of burnout are caused by additional factors, which represents a research gap worth investigating in future research.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Do we behave based on our implicit attitudes? Proposing a research model and an experimental study to investigate their influence on behavioral intentions
Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Münster
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied independent variables to explain user behavior. However, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes, most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes and do not consider implicit attitudes. Explicit and implicit attitudes can be contradictory and both might predict behavioral intention. Therefore, the present research-in-progress focuses on closing the research gap of refraining to differentiate attitudes in explicit and implicit attitudes and hence examining the influence of implicit attitudes on user behavior. Based on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and surveys, we propose an experimental setting that measures explicit and implicit attitudes to validate the research model. The proposed research might contribute to the research stream of IS acceptance and usage by better predicting behavioral intentions by also considering implicit attitudes. Future results might explain distorted predictions of behavior and reduce the intention behavior gap. Furthermore, the present research-in-progress introduces a suitable method to measure implicit attitudes.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
What does the skin tell us about information systems usage? A literature-based analysis of the utilization of electrodermal measurement for IS research
Proceedings of the 2015 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria

View Abstract
The term NeuroIS appears more frequently within the field of information system (IS). NeuroIS describes the idea of applying cognitive neuroscience theories, methods, and tools to obtain physiological responses of the user while using IS. However, before adopting these methods into IS research, a proper assessment is necessary to determine whether the methods used in other disciplines are also applicable to IS research. The present research introduces the method of measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA). Thereby, the physiology and different measurement parameters are described. By identifying the use of EDA within other disciplines, the present research reveals application areas for EDA in six different research streams in IS research and poses further research questions, which might be answer by applying EDA in these areas.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2015)
Why are teleworkers stressed? An empirical analysis of the causes of telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Osnabrück

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking, there are negative effects for employees. Literature shows that these negative effects of telework lead to undesired outcomes for teleworkers such as telework-exhaustion. The present research, however, goes one step further by identifying three significant telework-characteristics and hypothesizing the relationship between telework-characteristics and telework-enabled stressors. By doing so, one can understand the reason why telework-enabled stressors are perceived and identify the source of these stressors, which can then be counteracted to maintain the advantages of teleworking. Therefore, this research investigates the influence of the following telework-characteristics - information undersupply, autonomy, and isolation - on telework-enabled stressors and accordingly on telework-exhaustion and on the intention to continue teleworking. Results of an analysis on 310 teleworkers show that telework-characteristics influence telework-enabled stressors and accordingly increase the extent of telework-exhaustion and decrease the intention to continue teleworking.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weinert, C. (2015)
Enterprise resource planning systems induced stress: a comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly SAP users
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Osnabrück

View Abstract
In this research study we investigate whether and how ERP system characteristics cause its users to experience stress. In order to do so, we analyze a research model explaining enterprise resource planning systems induced stress with an empirical study in two organizations (N=227). The results reveal that usefulness, complexity, reliability, and pace of change are important ERP system characteristics leading to the perception of stressors and exhaustion. Furthermore, our comparative empirical analysis with young and elderly ERP users indicate that the elderly ones perceive ERP characteristics more negatively and are more stressed and exhausted than the younger users.

Buettner, R., Sauer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Towards ex ante Prediction of User Performance: A novel NeuroIS Methodology based on Real-Time Measurement of Mental Effort
Proceedings of the 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
We propose a methodology of an ex ante prediction of users' performance based on analyzing the pupillary diameter variability captured by ordinary eye-tracking systems. Based on a realistic large-scale experimental evaluation of our methodology we show promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to the user's mental effort and the expected user performance. Our non-invasive contact-free methodology can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments, without disturbing the participant/user.

Wirth, J., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Using a work system theory perspective to review 25 years of technology acceptance research: proposing a research agenda
Proceedings of the 2014 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
IT projects still often fail and do not generate the expected value due to the lack of user acceptance. From the point of view of the work system theory (WST) this might be grounded in the fact that in current technology acceptance research IT is treated as a technical artifact and not as part of a work system. Therefore, we set up a literature review to reflect 25 years of research since the introduction of its most prominent model to discuss in how far a work system theory perspective on technology acceptance research might help to explore possible research gaps. Our results reveal that the technology acceptance model (TAM) is still the predominant model in technology acceptance research and therefore the classic components of a work system namely participants, information and technology and the relation between these components have been researched very well. However, we found out that work practices and also the relation between work practices, participants, information and IT in relation to technology acceptance, which can have an influence on technology acceptance as well, have rather been neglected in current research. We also identified products/services and customers as potential drivers of user acceptance. We derive six propositions that can be further theorized and evaluated by technology acceptance research. Consequently, we conclude that a WST perspective on technology acceptance research is appropriate to discuss the acceptance of IT, which is part of a work system in which participants produce products or services for customers.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why are they grumbling about my new system? Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence of employee grumbling as a user resistance behavior
Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
The Relationship between Psychological, Physiological, and Behavioral Strain towards Technostress
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2014)
Technostress-induced Skin Conductance Response Patterns and Performance
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Maier, C. and Laumer, S. (2014)
Technostress-induced distorted pre-adoption beliefs
Proceedings of the 2014 Gmunden retreat on NeuroIS, Gmunden, Austria
(Research in Progress)

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2014)
The impact of human resources information systems and business process management implementations on recruiting process performance: A case study
Proceedings of the 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Savannah (GA)

View Abstract
This research examines the effects of business process management (BPM) and information systems implementations in secondary service processes. Using a case study of BPM and human resources information systems (HRIS) in the recruiting context at a financial service provider it can be shown that BPM, defined as a structured systematic approach to analyze and continually improve a specific process, and HRIS provide positive effects in terms of cost reduction, increased cycle time, customer satisfaction, and improve quality for secondary service processes in organizations. The results contribute to IS research as they illustrate how combined BPM and IS can be implemented in secondary service processes and provide evidence for the positive effects of BPM and HRIS in this type of processes.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Does teleworking negatively influence IT professionals? An empirical analysis of IT personnel's telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Singapore

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking in the IT industry, companies like Yahoo!, HP, or Best Buy have stopped their telework programs, which indicates that there might also be some negative side effects in this type of work. In regard to this, our research focuses on one particular negative side of teleworking by focusing on teleworking-induced stress of IT professionals. We theorize that teleworking-induced stressors influence IT personnel's psychological and behavioral strain in the form of exhaustion due to teleworking and discontinuous intention towards teleworking. Results of an empirical online survey with 57 IT professionals validate these dependencies, which gives us the grounds to identify work overload, work-home conflict, information underload, and social isolation as influence factors of exhaustion due to teleworking. Further results reveal that discontinuous intentions towards teleworking is directly influenced by social isolation and exhaustion due to teleworking, whereas the influence of work overload is mediated by exhaustion due to teleworking. Work overload due to telework has the strongest effect on exhaustion due to teleworking, which in turn is the strongest influence factor on the discontinuous intention towards teleworking.

Illig, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why IS after all? An Explorative Analysis of Professionals' Letters of Study Motivation
Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
While the selection of majors in Information Systems (IS) is widely discussed, the context of IS in further education lacks attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the motivational factors of individuals who intent to study IS, although they have already graduated in another degree program. Based on an explorative analysis of 84 letters of motivation of applicants applying for a further education degree program in IS, we identify determinants of an individual's motivation to study IS after all. Based on that, we conclude that extrinsic motivations such as expected career enhancement are more important than in other contexts such as undergraduate study paths.

Buettner, R., Daxenberger, B., Eckhardt, A., and Maier, C. (2013)
Cognitive workload induced by Information Systems: Introducing an objective way of measuring based on pupillary diameter responses
Proceedings of the 13th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The influence of coping mechanisms on technostress
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milan, Italy

View Abstract
This paper uses a laboratory experiment with perceptual and objective measures from skin conductance response to analyze the influence of different coping strategies on behavioral and psychological strain in the context of techostress. Thereby, behavioral strain is objectively observed in terms of task fulfillment and psychological strain by skin conductance response in four treatment groups, classified by receiving different coping strategies. Initial results of our research reveal that users with no-coping are strained more than those how utilized coping strategies during stressful situations. This also takes place subsequently to the IT-stressor, as the slope of the skin conductance level is negative when applying coping strategies. However, the first results of the SCR indicate that coping strategies have no influence on behavioral strain such as end-user performance. Furthermore, results of a MANOVA outline that the psychological strain level significantly differs between the treatment groups.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Although I am stressed, I still use IT! Theorizing the decisive impact of strain and addiction of social network site users in post-acceptance theory
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
This paper examines the decisive roles of strain and addiction in post-acceptance behavior of social networking sites' users. Therefore, we focus in a first step on the formation of discontinuous usage intentions by theorizing strain, addiction, and satisfaction as direct influencing factor that causes and/or inhibits them. In a second step, the influence of these variables on the intention-behavior relation is focused. We theorize that addiction as well as the ratio between satisfaction and strain moderate whether users transfer discontinuous usage intentions into non-usage behavior. To validate the subsequent research model we propose a longitudinal research setting and present initial results, whereupon satisfaction and strain - but not addiction - causes discontinuous usage intentions. We discuss our expected contributions by revealing that satisfaction, strain, and addiction influence whether a technology is used continuously; however, their influence on intentions and actual behaviors differs.

Eckhardt, A., Maier, C., Hsieh, J.J., Chuk, T., Chan, A., Hsiao, J., and Buettner, R. (2013)
Objective measures of IS usage behavior under conditions of experience and pressure using eye fixation data
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy

View Abstract
The core objective of this study is to understand individuals IS usage by going beyond the traditional subjective self-reported and objective system-log measures to unveil the delicate process through which users interact with IS. In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to capture users' eye movement and, more importantly, applied a novel methodology that uses the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to analyze the gathered physiological data. We also examine how performance pressure and prior usage experience of the investigative system affect IS usage patterns. Our results suggest that experienced and pressured users demonstrate more efficient and focused usage patterns than inexperienced and non-pressured ones, respectively. Our findings constitute an important advancement in the IS use literature. The proposed statistical approach for analyzing eye-movement data is a critical methodological contribution to the emerging research that uses eye-tracking technology for investigation.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
The Impact of Business Process Management and Applicant Tracking Systems on Recruiting Process Performance: A Representative Empirical Study with Germany's Top-1,000 Organizations
Proceedings of the 75th Wissenschaftlichen Jahrestagung des VHB, Würzburg

View Abstract
This research focuses on the various effects of different business process management components as well as the joint impact with information technology on process performance in the recruiting context. The results of a study with Germany's Top-1,000 organizations reveal that reduction of recruiting process costs is significantly determined by business process analyses, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems. An improved cycle time of the recruiting process is significantly influenced by business process controlling, business process analyses, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization and a joint usage of applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well as controlling has a significant positive impact on stakeholders' satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved by business process controlling as well as a joint usage of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Hence, the results reveal that different components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have diverse impacts on different dimensions of recruiting process performance. The results are discussed by focusing on the diverse effects of business process management on process performance and implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2013)
Pinning Down the Sources of Burnout: The Role of Information Technology as Daily Stressor
Proceedings of the 75th Wissenschaftlichen Jahrestagung des VHB, Würzburg

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to pin down some of the sources of the burnout phenomenon in modern organizations. We provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences and interrelations of and between these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model enables a comparison of whether technology or other work-stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfactions, low organizational commitments, and high turnover intentions. Based on an empirical analysis (n=306), the results of our study show that technologies are a contributing factor for employee burnout, because techno-stressors are a contributing factor for techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Results also reveal that work-exhaustion causes job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion has solely an indirect effect through work-exhaustion on these psychological and behavioral responses. Furthermore, post-hoc analyses identify that employees, who use IT as a supporting for their daily work process (non-IT professionals, such as recruiters), report higher levels of techno-exhaustion compared to employees, who consider IT as core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers). These analyses also indicate that techno-exhaustion has a direct and indirect effect on job satisfactions, organizational commitment, and turnover intention for non-IT professionals.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Effect of Coping Mechanisms on Technology Induced Stress: Towards a Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

View Abstract
Information and communication technology induced stress, called technostress, influences users negatively. Numerous investigations are made about technostress; however, none consider the concept of coping in order to explain strategies to avoid these negative consequences. Therefore, this paper develops a theoretical model to explain the coping process and how it influences technostress. The model theorizes that threat and coping appraisal are major determinants of emotional- and problem-focused coping whereby coping resources and individual's controllability influence the choice and the efficacy of coping. The resulting problem- or emotional-focused coping strategies are theorized to moderate the stressor-train relationship such that negative consequences can be avoided. The theoretical model suggests a different perspective on the linear view on the relationship between stressors and strain by proposing the consideration of the moderation effect of coping.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
The negative side of ICT-enabled communication: the case of social interaction overload in online social networks
Proceedings of the 21th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Utrecht, The Netherlands

View Abstract
This research aims to explain the negative side of ICT-enabled communications. Therefore, the perception of users that social interactions on online social networks (OSN) are threatening is suggested as a new variable called social interaction overload. The paper theorizes that individual, OSN-specific, and OSN-specific communication characteristics manifest the extent to which social interaction overload is perceived and how users response to it in a psychological and behavioral manner. Results of an empirical survey with 246 OSN users validate the assumed effects, so that we identify age, number of friends, and communication content as contribution factors of social interaction overload, which in turn has a direct effect on the two outcome variables satisfaction and continuous usage intention. Moreover, results reveal that social interaction overload has higher effects on OSN users' satisfaction than perceived usefulness or perceived enjoyment.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Role of Techno-Stressors and Techno-Exhaustion in Employees' Daily Work: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences of these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work stressors, work exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed theory enables a comparison of whether technology or other work stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes. Based on an empirical analysis (N=306), the results of our study show that techno-stressors have an impact on work stressors and techno-exhaustion is a contributing factor for work exhaustion. Next, we can show that the effects are different for IT and non-IT professionals as techno-exhaustion have an effect on each outcome variable for non-IT professionals, but not for IT professionals. The influence of techno-stressors is mediated on each outcome variable through techno-exhaustion for non-IT professionals but not for IT professionals. Furthermore, techno-exhaustion is significantly higher for non-IT professionals, even if they use IT at work far less than IT professionals, and techno-exhaustion has a stronger influence on non-IT professionals' overall work exhaustion. We conclude that techno-stress research has to consider whether occupations use IT daily as core of their working process or solely as a supporting instrument in order to provide a detailed explanation for technologies inducing stress at work.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Social Networks as a Source and Symbol of Stress: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
This research examines the sources and consequences of stress when using online social networks (OSN). In a first step, the five OSN-induced stressors invasion, pattern, complexity, uncertainty, and disclosure are identified. In a second step, the Model of Continuous OSN Usage is developed in order to examine the influence of these five stressors. Therefore, the model is based on the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households and the Post-Acceptance Model. Results of an empirical analysis with 154 OSNs users reveal that 57 per cent of satisfaction and 64 per cent of continuous usage intention can be explained within the Model of Continuous OSN Usage. Notably, the five stressors have a higher strength of effect on satisfactions than the three attitudinal beliefs hedonic, utilitarian, and social outcomes altogether. In summary, the results offer a theoretical foundation for recent practical observations that OSNs are a source and symbol of stress.

Eckhardt, A., Maier, C., and Buettner, R. (2012)
The Influence of Pressure to Perform and Experience on Changing Perceptions and User Performance: A Multi-Method Experimental Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
To address shortcomings of predominately subjective measures in empirical IS research on IT usage and human-computer interaction, this paper uses a multi-method experimental analysis extending empirical surveying with objective measures from eye-tracking and electrodermal activity (EDA). In a three stage process, objective user performance is observed in terms of task fulfillment and user performing of participants in four focus groups, classified by user system experience and the treatment pressure to perform. Initial results of this research-in-progress reveal that users with prior system experience perform considerably better and faster than users without system experience. This also accounts for users under pressure to perform compared to users without pressure to perform. However, the results of the EDA show that users under pressure to perform also have a higher objective strain level. Furthermore, a first regression analysis outlines that objective performance might help to understand user's system satisfaction to a greater extent.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Using User Personality to explain the Intention-Behavior Gap and Changes in Beliefs: A Longitudinal Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

View Abstract
The research reported in this article intends to investigate whether individuals a) update degrees of beliefs over time and b) transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior in a different manner based on their personality. Therefore, the personality trait dispositional resistance is discussed within the Integrative Framework of Technology Use. Results of an empirical longitudinal analysis (N=145) show that individuals update their beliefs based on prior beliefs and usage behavior differently in accordance with their personality. Results also reveal that individuals transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior differently based on their personality. Hence, we discuss our contributions to technology adoption research by highlighting the importance of personality traits when investigating technology-related beliefs and behavior over time. Results also include an assessment of the findings' practical relevance by identifying which individuals maintain negative beliefs over time and by identifying the high extent of technology usage as a possibility for overcoming negative beliefs.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Empirical Evidence for an Individual's Dispositional Resistance to IT-Induced Changes
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
As information systems (IS) usage is the missing link from information technology (IT) investments to the business value impact of IT (DeLone and McLean 2003), it is a significant issue for IS researchers and practitioners, if individuals resist using these systems. Several recent models have been developed in order to offer insights which perceptual beliefs foster user resistance. Results reveal perceptual beliefs as perceived threats, technostress, or switching costs as major determinants for user resistance. Nevertheless, user resistance has not been researched from a perspective of predisposed individual differences so far. Consequently, this paper proposes the new construct dispositional resistance to IT-induced changes. This reflects inclinations to resist any kind of IT-related change and discusses resistance from the perspective of individual differences. Within this approach, it is theoretically hypothesized, how this inclination influences perceptual beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Empirical results reveal strong impacts of the newly proposed construct on technostress.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., and Laumer, S. (2012)
The Shady Side Of Facebook: The Influence Of Perceived Information And Network Characteristics On The Attitude Towards Information Overload
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

View Abstract
This research paper analyzes the impact of information and network characteristics on the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitude towards information overload (IO) on Facebook. By using an information overload model and the data of 300 active Facebook users it can be shown that the various categories of attitude are influenced by different factors. The level of determination of the behavioral attitude towards IO is lower than the level of determination of the affective and cognitive attitude towards IO. The identified antecedents of IO explain up to 36 per cent of the variance of IO. Results indicate that affective and cognitive attitude towards IO are more influenced by these antecedents as the behavioral attitude towards IO. Furthermore, results reveal that the amount of information an individual receives is the major predictor of all three dimensions of attitude. Several implications for adoption research are discussed.

Maier, C. (2012)
Personality Within Information Systems Research: A Literature Analysis
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain

View Abstract
After integrating five higher-order personality traits in an extended model of technology acceptance, Devaraj et al. (2008) called for further research including personality in information systems research to understand the formation of perceptual beliefs and behaviors in more detail. To assist such future research endeavors, this article gives an overview on prior research discussing personality within the six plus two journals of the AIS Senior Basket (MISQ, ISR, JMIS, JAIS, EJIS, ISJ, JSIS, JIT). Therefore, the Theory of a Person approach (ToP) derived from psychology research serves as the underlying conceptual matrix. Within the literature analysis, we identify 30 articles discussing personality traits on distinct hierarchical levels in three fields of information systems research. Results of the literature analysis reveal a shift of examined traits over the last years. In addition, research gaps are identified so that propositions are derived. Further research results and implications are discussed within the article.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
When Social Networking Turns to Social Overload: Explaining the Stress, Emotional Exhaustion, and Quitting Behavior from Social Network Sites' Users
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain
Best Paper Award Nominee

View Abstract
This research responds to a current phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue, while using social network sites, such as Facebook, which original intend to provide hedonic value to users. To explain this current phenomenon, we propose and evaluate a research model based on the stress-strain-outcome model. Focal point is the stressor social overload, which induces feelings of being emotional exhausted. For that reason, some users of social network sites start to get dissatisfied and report an increasing discontinuous usage intention. In addition, the research article provides evidence for the fact that the effect of stress on the two outcome variables satisfaction and discontinuous usage intention is fully mediated through strain. This is validated with an empirical survey with 523 Facebook users. Several implications for technology adoption research are discussed.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Are we in the Right Profession? - Comparing Information Systems, Computer Science and other Disciplines' Professional's Perceptions of the Job Market
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Milwaukee (WI)

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Based on an empirical analysis with 2,887 professionals with different educational backgrounds, this research shows that Information Systems and Computer Science professionals are more optimistic toward the labor market and available job alternatives than other disciplines such as General Business Management, Engineering, or Social and Humane Science. The results underline that professionals in the IT field have a bright future for their further career. In times of shrinking information systems and computer systems enrollments, this promising prospect can support both undergraduate and graduate schools activities to promote their courses. Several implications for this issue will be discussed in the paper.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Implementation of Large-scale Information Systems in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - A Case Study of Work-and Health-related Consequences
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

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Using a case study of a financial service provider, this research provides a next step toward an answer to the question about the importance of an employee's attitude toward a newly introduced information system in light of a mandatory usage setting. Based on the Commitment to Change Model, the paper argues theoretically and provides case study evidence that negative attitudes toward new information systems influence work-related and health-related outcomes. The observed case indicates that a negative evaluation of a new financial information system leads to negative consequences such as decreased organizational commitment and overall job satisfaction as well as an increased turnover intention and a higher number of sick days. The results implicate that work- and health-related consequences are potential dependent variables for technology adoption research and that practitioners have to address these issues during the implementation of information systems in organizations.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Identifying Resistant User Groups during the Product Lifecycle of IT Innovations: Proposing a User Transformation Theory
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

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Motivated by the phenomenon of the digital divide, this research tries to identify resistant user groups in private household settings. Therefore, the concept of dispositional resistance widely studied in psychology, which reflects individuals' predisposition to check out something new, is transferred into information systems research. With the help of this trait, we investigate the groups within the diffusion of innovation theory, and try to identify resistant user groups. Surprisingly, the results do indicate that individuals, who are regarded as innovators, are not less resistant than others. We discuss reasons for this finding like the non-consideration of the point in time to which an individual gets aware of an innovation, or the speed to which an individual decides using an innovation. Based on these reasons, we develop a user transformation theory which clusters users and non-users of a technology in a completely new manner, as we differ between spontaneous and deliberate, as well as aware and unaware non-user. With data of 3,262 individuals, we empirically confirm that these groups differ concerning their dispositional resistance. Our research emphasizes the importance for future research to focus on these resistant user groups and their potential digital divide from society. Potential benefits of these new user group clusters are discussed.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Is Facebook Usage Becoming Stressful? Proposing and Validating a Theory of Stress-induced ICT Discontinuous Usage
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

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Our research responds to an actual phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue while using popular social networking platforms as Facebook. Based on the stress-strain-outcome model, a theory of stress-induced ICT discontinuous usage is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The theory focuses on ICT-induced stress in voluntary usage settings in the household context. The theory provides an extended understanding of stress, as it focuses besides techno-stress on information, interaction, and social overload. The theory argues that an individual's perceived stress in terms of these four stress dimensions is a contributing factor for strain (e.g. emotional exhaustion), which in turn influences one's satisfaction with a technology and the corresponding usage behavior. As technology usage in households is predominately voluntary, we suggest discontinuous usage intention as new dependent variable to capture the phenomenon observed that individuals decrease usage intensity and to respond to current calls for understanding user resistance in a more appropriate way. Consequently, the paper explains how different dimensions of perceived stress mediated by strain influence an individual's resistance behavior. The proposed theory is validated with the help of an empirical study (n=523). Several implications for IT adoption research are discussed.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Dispositional Resistance to Change and Social Network Site Adopters' and Non-Adopters' Attitudinal Beliefs - An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

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Using the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households (MATH) (Venkatesh and Brown 2001, Brown and Venkatesh 2005), this research investigates the impact of dispositional resistance to change on Social Network Site (SNS) adopters' and non-adopters' attitudinal beliefs in order to explain, why individuals resist using Facebook. Therefore, the study is based on psychology research and adapts a personality perspective to explain user resistance. Dispositional resistance captures an individual's inclination to react to change with resistance and is based on four dimensions named routine seeking, short-term focus, emotional reaction, and cognitive rigidity (Oreg 2003). By conducting an empirical study, the influences of the four resistance dimensions on individuals' attitudinal beliefs are analyzed within the MATH. The influence is investigated for adopters, actual non-adopters and long-term non-adopters in a separate way. The results indicate significant relations between the dispositional resistance to change and individuals' attitudinal beliefs, which vary for the analyzed groups. The same holds true for the R², as the four resistance dimensions explain up to 54 percent of the variance of individuals' attitudinal beliefs.

Maier, C. (2011)
Explaining the Influence of User Personality on the Evaluation of IT Usage Drivers and IT Usage Consequences
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, San Antonio (TX)

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This proposal pursues the goal to combine personality and IT usage behavior. Therefore, a psychological theory - which is named Five-Factor Theory of Personality - is applied to offer a theoretical framework for the interaction between personality and typical adoption theories or models (as TAM, UTAUT, etc.). The insights should help to gain insights of the impact of personality on IT usage, IT usage drivers and IT usage consequences in different IS research fields. The proposal focuses on IT (non-)usage behavior and IT diffusion, but should also offer valuable insights for IT management research as IT outsourcing decisions or how to handle employees.

Lang, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Drivers, Challenges and Consequences of E-Recruiting - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, San Antonio (TX)

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Using a literature review of 80 journals and proceedings we identified 23 research papers discussing driver, challenges and consequences of e-recruiting. In total 14 drivers, 15 challenges and 9 consequences of implementing and using e-recruiting has been identified. Based on these results the paper introduced a model of drivers, challenges and consequences of e-recruiting and discusses implications for research and practice. The analysis reveals that e-recruiting will reduce costs for recruitment and selection, increase the number of suitable applicants, enable time savings for both organizations and applicants and improve the corporate image. These four consequences also have been identified as major drivers of e-recruiting projects. The identified challenges include the exclusion of potential applicants, the deception of applicants in e-assessment procedures, the security of applicants' data and low qualification of applicants.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Trend is our Friend - German IT Personnel's Perception of Job-related Factors before, during and after the Economic Downturn
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, San Antonio (TX), Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magid Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award
Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magit Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award

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With the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers the global economic crisis has reached one of its summits. Before that time CIOs challenged high turnover rates of IT personnel and recruiting, developing and retaining the IT workforce was one of the most important concerns of CIOs. However, the global economic development has changed on the one side the challenges of organizations, and on the other side also the perception of job-related factors of IT talent. Based on this development we compare major IT turnover constructs using three empirical surveys in 2008, 2009 and 2010 in order to discuss how the global economic development influences the perceptions of job-related factors and turnover intentions of German IT personnel. The analysis showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment is decreasing since 2008, perceived job alternatives are increasing compared to 2009 and turnover intention has reached a maximum in 2010 compared to the two other years in question.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2011)
Technology Adoption by Elderly People - An Empirical Analysis of Adopters and Non-Adopters of Social Networking Sites
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Zürich, Schweiz

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2010)
Why do they resist? - An empirical analysis of an individual's personality trait resistance regarding the adoption of new information systems
Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Pretoria, South Africa

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
Towards an Understanding of an Individual's Resistance to Use an IS - Empirical Examinations and Directions for Future Research
Proceedings of the 2009 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Phoenix (AZ)

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
An Integrated IT-Architecture for Talent Management and Recruitment
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS), Milan, Italy