Veröffentlichungen von Prof. Dr. Tim Weitzel

Konferenz-Artikel (Peer Reviewed)

Niederman, F., Kaarst-Brown, M., Quesenberry, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
The Future of IT Work: Computers and People
Proceedings of the 2019 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Nashville, TN, USA

View Abstract
The future of work is widely debated in terms of skills shortages, disappearing or emerging jobs, ongoing automation through artificial intelligence (AI), and what might happen if we do not have to work due to increased substitution of human with machine labor. Our goal is not to rehash these debates, but to reflect on them in terms of information technology (IT) work in particular. The purpose of thinking about the future is not to predict with precision or certainty what will happen. Rather the purpose is to sensitize us toward choosing pathways and taking actions that increase the probability of the futures we would prefer and decrease the probability of future states we would like to avoid. This paper considers a number of trends and reflects upon them from the dual, potentially conflicting perspectives of IT worker and of society. We close with our thoughts on convergence of both trends and impact, and potential implications.

Hund, A., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
The Creation of Digital Innovation: Internal Reorganization, External Networks and Organizational Knowledge
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the 79th Academy of Management Conference, Boston, MA, USA

View Abstract
Digital innovation already disrupted numerous industries and organizations are challenged to align their innovation efforts with the new reality of a digitized environment. We examine how internal reorganization and the external network of an organization are related to organizational knowledge and the eventual creation of digital innovation. To develop digital innovation, firms tap a variety of heterogeneous backgrounds to exploit the ease with which different knowledge fields can be accessed and recombined in a digitized environment. Therefore, the actors involved in the development process come from different sources from within and without the firm as the inclusion of digital technology challenges previously non-digital organizational innovation logics. We develop a conceptual model, which takes the characteristics of digital innovation into account.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How do Users Respond to Technostress? An Empirical Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Coping
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, USA

View Abstract
As technostress costs organizations financial resources and threatens the well-being, it is essential for users as well as companies to manage technostress. To do so, users cope proactive by removing or reducing techno-stressors or reactive by restoring users' emotional state. However, literature is limited by explaining what factors lead to proactive and reactive coping in a short-term technostress situation. The present paper addresses these shortcomings by investigating in how techno-stressors and emotional exhaustion influences proactive and reactive coping. Results based on 110 users show that users respond to techno-stressors in a proactive way, whereas users reactively respond to emotional exhaustion. In addition, proactive coping is stronger affected by techno-stressors, and reactive coping is stronger affected by emotional exhaustion. Thereby, we contribute to technostress and coping literature by demonstrating how users respond in short-term technostress situation and highlight the importance of time in the present context.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Oehlhorn, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
A Social Comparison Perspective to Study Negative Effects of Telework
Forthcoming in: Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, CA, USA

View Abstract
Telework is indisputably important for establishing a positive work-life-balance for employees. Teleworkers are less stressed and more satisfied by work implying turnover intentions that are below half of those of regular office workers. However, recent practical indications suggest that there is also a dark side of telework, meaning that telework has adverse effects for office workers, who, among others, develop feelings of envy. To study these adverse effects for office workers, we use social comparison theory and suggest that a disparity of telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors. In developing our research model, we posit that office workers become envy, dissatisfied with their job, develop turnover intentions and perform worse. An empirical study with 269 employees working in one organization with telework arrangements confirms the hypothesized relationships. Therewith, this study contributes to telework research by providing an interpersonal perspective on telework and revealing that there is a dark side of telework for office workers, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from developing adverse emotions and behaviors.

Hund, A., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Organizational Reconfiguration and Digital Innovation Success: A Review and Novel Perspectives
Proceedings of the JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), San Francisco, CA, USA
(Research in Progress)

Mattke, J., Hund, A., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Will the real Value of Blockchain Please Stand Up? Lessons Learned from Multiple Blockchain Projects
Proceedings of the MISQE Special Issue Workshop, San Francisco
(Research in Progress)

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Müller, L., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Typology of User Resistance Behavior: A Study Explaining Why Individuals Resist Using Bitcoin
Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), San Francisco

View Abstract
Bitcoin could revolutionize the system of payments, yet most individuals do not use Bitcoin as a means of payment. As the success of Bitcoin as a means of payment depends upon a high number of individuals using Bitcoin, this study examines why individuals resist Bitcoin as a means of payment. We draw on the status quo bias perspective and take a configurational approach, using fuzzy set qualitative comparison analysis (fsQCA). The analysis reveals a typology of four types of resistant users, who resist Bitcoin as a means of payment: the regret driven resistant user, the uncertainty driven resistant user, the transition cost driven resistant user and the cost driven resistant user. We contribute to resistance research and Bitcoin research by providing a typology of resistant users and identifying equifinal configurations of influencing factors leading to individual's resistance to Bitcoin as a means of payment.

Laumer, S., Gubler, F., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
Job Seekers' Acceptance of Job Recommender Systems: Results of an Empirical Study
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Waikoloa, Hawaii
Nominated for Best Paper

View Abstract
Based on UTAUT2 and the importance of trust to explain user behavior in relation to recommender systems, we focus on job recommender systems by developing and validating a job recommender system acceptance model. The results of our empirical, survey-based study with 440 job seekers indicate that beside performance expectancy and habit, trust is among the three most important determinants and it is especially relevant for women, passive job seekers and those without experience in using job recommender systems. The paper extends general trust and recommender system research by revealing three moderators for the trust and intention relationship. It contextualizes the UTAUT2 by incorporating trust as an antecedent of a consumer's intention to use and by revealing three moderating effects for this relationship. Hence, it is the basis for further studies investigating the acceptance of job recommender system, which has rather been neglected by prior research.

Mattke, J., Müller, L., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Engagement with Social Ads: Explaining the Influence of Herding in Social Media Advertising
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
Social media uses social ads that are enriched with social media likes (SMLs). Yet, existing research on advertising cannot explain how SMLs influence individuals' engagement with social ads. We build upon herding literature and the theory of the strengths of ties and explain how the observation of social ads enriched with SMLs influences individuals' intention to engage with the social ad. This paper explains the effect 1) of the pure number of SMLs of a social ad and 2) the effect of SMLs from strongly or weakly tied friends on individuals' engagement with social ads. We thereby contribute to a better understanding why individuals click on social ads and provide practical implications for social media marketing' campaigns.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Understanding Privacy Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal through Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)
Nominated for the Most Innovative Short Paper Award

View Abstract
Individuals differ in their motivation to protect their privacy. When facing privacy threats, individuals evaluate the threat (threat appraisal) and the extent they can cope with it (coping appraisal) which, in turn, influences their protection motivation. Hence, better understanding both appraisals helps us to better understand an important part of privacy behavior. We introduce the concept of mindfulness to explain privacy threat and coping appraisals. Mindfulness is hypothesized to increase both, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. A quantitative study is to be carried out to examine our hypotheses. We expect to contribute to the privacy literature by demonstrating how different levels of threat appraisal and coping appraisal are formed.

Maier, C., Wirth, J., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Personality and Technostress: Theorizing the Influence of IT Mindfulness
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Even though IT use has numerous benefits for users and organizations, such as improved performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience IT use as a source of stress, i.e. technostress. Since such technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads individuals to perceive it. Based on psychology research suggesting user personality as a cause of stress perceptions, this research uses the Theory of Personality to investigate how user personality influences technostress. In developing our research model, we focus on the dynamic, context-specific trait IT mindfulness and on the degree to which this trait determines the perception of technostress. This study contributes to technostress research by revealing that user personality in general and IT mindfulness in particular are determinants of technostress, which organizations should account for to prevent employees from perceiving technostress.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Analyzing and managing IT-induced work system changes
Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea
(Teaching Case)

View Abstract
This teaching case explores the challenges of changing a work system by implementing an information system (IS). The case describes the approach implemented by "The Bank", a financial service provider, when it implemented a new financial and banking IS "SysOne", and thus fundamentally changed its work systems. The case is a real business scenario, which bases on case study research conducted by our research team and it adapts recent theoretical advances in the IS implementation literature. Using this teaching case should encourage students to discuss IS implementations from a general "system thinking" rather than a "tool thinking" perspective. An IS implementation is not just a new tool, it is a change of employees' work systems. This teaching case should guide students to extend the efforts implemented to guide employees when implementing an IS beyond the technology to focus on the major IT-induced work system changes and thereby enable successful technochange.

Müller, L., Mattke, J., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
The Curse of Mobile Marketing: A Mixed Methods Study on Individuals' Switch to Mobile Ad Blockers
Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, Korea

View Abstract
Mobile marketing investment continues to rise steadily even though online publishers have not realized the desired returns, due to increased use of mobile ad blockers. In this study, we take a mixed methods approach, embracing qualitative, quantitative and configurational approaches, to understand why individuals switch to using mobile ad blockers. We draw on the pull-push-mooring model to evaluate what configurations of pull, push and mooring factors influence individuals' decision to switch to using mobile ad blockers, identifying four distinct configurations of influencing factors resulting in the intention to switch. Furthermore, we specify the unequal effects of influencing factors and validate the quality of our results. Our research deepens the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of switching to mobile ad blockers and provides valuable implications to online publishers facing the challenge of rising mobile ad blocker use.

Dürr, S., Wagner, H., Weitzel, T., and Beimborn, D. (2017)
Navigating Digital Innovation - The Complementary Effect of Organizational and Knowledge Recombination
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , St. Gallen, CH

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Is Information Technology Solely to Blame? The Influence of Work-home Conflict Dimensions on Work Exhaustion
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Using information technology (IT) can blur the boundaries between work and private life and contribute to an IT-based work-home conflict (WHC). Organizations and governments treat IT usage as the main source of WHC and have implemented laws and policies to restrict access to IT to reduce WHC. In this paper, we investigate the effect of IT usage-related and work-based dimensions of WHC: time-, strain-, and behavior-based WHC. Understanding the dimensions of WHC can help organizations and governments move beyond IS usage restrictions to identify and prevent the negative consequences of each dimension for employees, such as work exhaustion. We distinguish IT- from work-based dimensions and theorize their effect on work exhaustion. The results of a study of 542 employees show that the IT-based dimension of WHC only indirectly influences work exhaustion, whereas time- and strain-based WHC contribute significantly and directly to work exhaustion. Implications for research and practice are suggested.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The Appropriateness of Blended Learning across the Phases of Technology Use
Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
Healthcare professionals are characterized compared to other professionals through their continuous need of training due to constantly implementing complex technologies, which have a direct impact on patients well-being. In this context blended learning has been already successfully used. Nevertheless, less is known regarding the appropriateness of blended learning over the phases of healthcare technology. Therefore, we conducted a semi-structured, explorative survey, using a mixed method research design and interviewed 16 healthcare professionals of three Chinese hospitals. We focus in our survey on the appropriateness of traditional and online learning methods across different phases of technology use. Based on our results we conclude three propositions regarding blended learning. The propositions indicate that the appropriateness of traditional and online learning methods differs according to the phases of technology use, the healthcare professionals user role and the complexity of the healthcare technology used.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
The influence of change-related stress on user resistance when an enterprise system is implemented: a longitudinal field study
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dublin, Ireland

View Abstract
When an enterprise system is implemented employees often respond with user resistance behavior. As employees work environment are changed significantly they also experience stress during an implementation. However, neither technostress nor user resistance research have focused on the stress related to the change induced by an enterprise system implementation. Hence, it is not known how change-related stress results in user resistance behavior and thus prevents organizations from managing the implementation process sufficiently. Therefore, we provide a research model that theorizes the influence of change characteristics, such as change complexity, switching costs and switching benefits, on change-related work overload and role ambiguity as change stressors, which in turn determines employees change-induced exhaustion. When this exhaustion is perceived as a threat user resistance behavior will occur. Using a longitudinal field study with 273 employees during an enterprise system implementation we provide empirical evidence for the proposed model.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
What happens when users are not able to perform coping mechanisms? An investigation of the habituation process
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA
(Research in Progress)
Best Paper Nominee

View Abstract
In some situations individuals are unable to perform coping mechanisms against technostress because of low controllability and resources. Thereby, they are repeatedly exposed to technology-related stimuli named IT-stressors, which should result in several user responses such as emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and poor performance. However, in these situations individuals might habituate to the IT-stressor such that the user responses are mitigated. We assume that the influence of the IT-stressor on emotional exhaustion, physiological arousal, and performance is moderated by this habituation effect. Therefore, we propose an experimental setting in which individuals are repeatedly exposed to a computer breakdown to which they might get used to over time. During the experiment, we draw on self-reporting and objective methods to capture user responses after each exposure to the IT-stressor, in order to analyze the change of the user responses across time. Thereby, we expect the results to contribute to technostress and coping literature.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Implicit Attitudes: An Investigation of Implicit Attitudes and Their Influences on Behavioral Intentions
Proceedings of the 14th Annual HCI/MIS Research Workshop (Pre-ICIS-Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Attitudes are one of the three most-frequently studied antecedence of user behavior. Most of the investigations in the research stream of IS acceptance and usage have a pure focus on explicit attitudes, although psychological literature distinguishes between explicit and implicit attitudes. These unconscious automatic associations individuals make between an attitude object and its favorable or unfavorable evaluation are not taken into consideration in IS acceptance and usage literature. Hence, the present research zooms into the attitude construct by distinguishing between explicit and implicit attitudes and investigates their influences on behavioral intentions. Based on the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) and a survey, we conducted a study that captures explicit and implicit attitudes, to evaluate the research model. The research reveals that explicit and implicit attitudes are distinct constructs and that not only explicit but also implicit attitudes have an effect on behavioral intention towards using the IS.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
A work system theory perspective on user satisfaction: Using multiple case studies to propose a work system success model
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Forth Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
In this paper we use multiple case studies and apply work system theory to them to better understand user satisfaction in each case. Based on the IS success model and the three case studies we conclude that beside the classic investigated objects information and technology as proposed by the IS success model also additional component of a work system influence user satisfaction. In particular we identified that work practices and also the relation between work practices, information and technologies have an influence on user satisfaction. We also revealed products/services and customers as potential drivers of user satisfaction and analyzed individual, environmental, strategical, and infrastructure characteristics as important contextual factors. Therefore, we suggest a work system success model for an extended understanding of user satisfaction that should better guide organizations when designing and implementing information systems.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Successfully Implementing Enterprise Content Management: Lessons Learnt from a Financial Service Provider
Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Fort Worth, TX, USA

View Abstract
Information overload and content chaos are major challenges for organizations, as they have to deal with a high amount of unstructured content. With enterprise content management (ECM) systems, a technological solution is developed to deal with such challenges; however, these systems can only provide value to an organization if they are implemented in the context of an ECM strategy. In this paper the implementation of a new ECM strategy at a financial service provider is described to illustrate how organizations can on the one side design an ECM strategy that reduces information overload and content chaos and on the other side implement it successfully. The four keys for successfully implementing ECM based on the lessons learnt derived are an ECM team leading the change process, the acceptance of users by meeting the organizations business needs, a metadata taxonomy enabling dynamic content delivery, and an effective change management from the outset.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Drivers and Consequences of Frustration When Using Social Networking Services: A Quantitative Analysis of Facebook Users
Proceedings of the 21th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Puerto Rico

View Abstract
In this study drivers and consequences of frustration, a negative emotion when using information technology (IT), are theorized and empirically evaluated in a social networking services (SNS) usage context. For example, when users are frustrated by using SNS they might stop using these services. As the number of users mainly determines the value of SNS this paper focuses on frustration while using SNS. It is assumed that both technology and social aspects of SNS usage determine whether users feel frustrated. Empirical evidence can be provided that perceived enjoyment, envy, information overload, and social overload are antecedents of the sentiment frustration. It is also argued that frustration while using SNS will lead to dissatisfaction and discontinued usage. Based on the empirical evidence for this cohesion the paper discusses its theoretical contribution in terms of that discontinuous usage behavior is a coping strategy applied by users to minimize the frustration sentiment.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Extending Moore's Exhaustion Model: Including Further Dimensions of Burnout and Investigating Their Influence on Turnover Intention Among IT Professionals
Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Newport Beach, California USA

View Abstract
This research focuses on burnout as a driver of turnover intention amongst IT professionals. We extend Moore's exhaustion model by including further dimensions of burnout into the model, namely depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. The effect of stressors on these dimensions and the original dimension of emotional exhaustion is investigated, as is their influence on turnover intention among IT professional. Results based on a data sample of 154 IT professionals show that not only emotional exhaustion but also depersonalization leads to turnover intention. This outcome cannot be neglected when trying to reduce turnover intention in an organization in order to maintain competitive advantages. Moreover, while the stressors suggested by Moore influence emotional exhaustion, they only slightly explain the dimensions of depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. This indicates that these two dimensions of burnout are caused by additional factors, which represents a research gap worth investigating in future research.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Blended Learning Success: Cultural and Learning Style Impacts
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Osnabrück

View Abstract
Corporate education in international organizations faces a lot of challenges which are hoped to be addressed by using blended learning concepts. However, the heterogeneity of an international workforce in terms of culture and learning style opposes this objective. Therefore, this research-in-progress paper focuses on cultural and learning style impacts on learning success when using blended learning in organizations. Based on first theoretical ideas of a blended learning success model the impact of culture and learning style on learning outcome is theorized and analyzed using an empirical study conducted with 81 employees of an international organization. The results reveal that national culture has an impact on blended learning success and therefore a cultural sensitive design of blended learning environments is necessary. The results are the basis for further research to develop a blended learning success model including cultural and learning style aspects as it is described in the paper.

Wirth, J., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Using a work system theory perspective to review 25 years of technology acceptance research: proposing a research agenda
Proceedings of the 2014 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
IT projects still often fail and do not generate the expected value due to the lack of user acceptance. From the point of view of the work system theory (WST) this might be grounded in the fact that in current technology acceptance research IT is treated as a technical artifact and not as part of a work system. Therefore, we set up a literature review to reflect 25 years of research since the introduction of its most prominent model to discuss in how far a work system theory perspective on technology acceptance research might help to explore possible research gaps. Our results reveal that the technology acceptance model (TAM) is still the predominant model in technology acceptance research and therefore the classic components of a work system namely participants, information and technology and the relation between these components have been researched very well. However, we found out that work practices and also the relation between work practices, participants, information and IT in relation to technology acceptance, which can have an influence on technology acceptance as well, have rather been neglected in current research. We also identified products/services and customers as potential drivers of user acceptance. We derive six propositions that can be further theorized and evaluated by technology acceptance research. Consequently, we conclude that a WST perspective on technology acceptance research is appropriate to discuss the acceptance of IT, which is part of a work system in which participants produce products or services for customers.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why are they grumbling about my new system? Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence of employee grumbling as a user resistance behavior
Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Auckland, New Zealand

View Abstract
This research theorizes employee grumbling as a user resistance phenomenon observed during early information system (IS) implementation phases. When the usage of new IS is mandatory, user resistance cannot be observed when focusing technology usage, instead, employees protest against the IS implementation, or spoke rather negatively of it. This form of user resistance behavior is conceptualized by the newly proposed variable employee grumbling, which provides a different perspective on user resistance that can be used especially in early implementation phases to observe resistance behaviors. Perceived ease of use and usefulness, affective and cognitive resistance to change, and individual differences and basic tendencies are analyzed as antecedents based on study with 106 employees during an IS implementation. The results of the analysis reveal that especially affective resistance to change determine employee grumbling, and technology perceptions are less important in early implementation.

Renner, D., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Blended Learning - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Savannah (GA)

View Abstract
The aim of this paper is to identify measurements of learning efficiency and learning effectiveness of blended learning and to analyze drivers of learning effectiveness and learning efficiency in learning environments of corporate education. Therefore a literature review of the AIS Electronic Library is done. With a single term search including "learning efficiency", "learning effectiveness" and "blended learning" 14 papers are identified. Regarding learning efficiency, less research is available so that only few measurements are available and no drivers are identified In contrary, learning effectiveness is in research focus: 10 measurement indicators and 16 drivers are analyzed. Few of these findings concentrate on blended learning environment in corporate education. In conclusion, an evaluation framework including learning effectiveness and efficiency for blended learning environments of corporate education is desirable. This paper discusses opportunities for future search based on the state-of-art knowledge published by the AIS Electronic Library.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Stars Matter - How FLOSS Developers' Reputation Affects the Attraction of New Developers
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Singapore

View Abstract
The attraction of new developers is a key challenge for initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). While previous evaluations consider status gains and competence evaluations to be key drivers for novices' joining behavior, it is unclear how FLOSS developers' relationships with others affect the attraction of new developers. In this research, we look at FLOSS developers' relationships in terms of positive evaluations given by others. Using this perspective, we examine how FLOSS developers' reputation among members within and beyond the project community affects their projects' ability to attract new developers. We draw on Social Resource Theory (SRT) and hypothesize that developers with a high reputation among others enjoy high visibility and credibility, which in turn helps their projects to attract new members. Finally, we propose an evaluation approach for our research model that examines the reputation and project behavior of more than 1,000 FLOSS developers on a longitudinal base.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Does teleworking negatively influence IT professionals? An empirical analysis of IT personnel's telework-enabled stress
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Singapore

View Abstract
Despite the wide dissemination and acceptance of teleworking in the IT industry, companies like Yahoo!, HP, or Best Buy have stopped their telework programs, which indicates that there might also be some negative side effects in this type of work. In regard to this, our research focuses on one particular negative side of teleworking by focusing on teleworking-induced stress of IT professionals. We theorize that teleworking-induced stressors influence IT personnel's psychological and behavioral strain in the form of exhaustion due to teleworking and discontinuous intention towards teleworking. Results of an empirical online survey with 57 IT professionals validate these dependencies, which gives us the grounds to identify work overload, work-home conflict, information underload, and social isolation as influence factors of exhaustion due to teleworking. Further results reveal that discontinuous intentions towards teleworking is directly influenced by social isolation and exhaustion due to teleworking, whereas the influence of work overload is mediated by exhaustion due to teleworking. Work overload due to telework has the strongest effect on exhaustion due to teleworking, which in turn is the strongest influence factor on the discontinuous intention towards teleworking.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Four 'W's of Face-To-Face - Suggesting an Enriched Perspective on Nearshoring Relationship Management
Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Singapore

Illig, S., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Why IS after all? An Explorative Analysis of Professionals' Letters of Study Motivation
Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
While the selection of majors in Information Systems (IS) is widely discussed, the context of IS in further education lacks attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the motivational factors of individuals who intent to study IS, although they have already graduated in another degree program. Based on an explorative analysis of 84 letters of motivation of applicants applying for a further education degree program in IS, we identify determinants of an individual's motivation to study IS after all. Based on that, we conclude that extrinsic motivations such as expected career enhancement are more important than in other contexts such as undergraduate study paths.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The influence of coping mechanisms on technostress
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milan, Italy

View Abstract
This paper uses a laboratory experiment with perceptual and objective measures from skin conductance response to analyze the influence of different coping strategies on behavioral and psychological strain in the context of techostress. Thereby, behavioral strain is objectively observed in terms of task fulfillment and psychological strain by skin conductance response in four treatment groups, classified by receiving different coping strategies. Initial results of our research reveal that users with no-coping are strained more than those how utilized coping strategies during stressful situations. This also takes place subsequently to the IT-stressor, as the slope of the skin conductance level is negative when applying coping strategies. However, the first results of the SCR indicate that coping strategies have no influence on behavioral strain such as end-user performance. Furthermore, results of a MANOVA outline that the psychological strain level significantly differs between the treatment groups.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Although I am stressed, I still use IT! Theorizing the decisive impact of strain and addiction of social network site users in post-acceptance theory
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Milan, Italy
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
This paper examines the decisive roles of strain and addiction in post-acceptance behavior of social networking sites' users. Therefore, we focus in a first step on the formation of discontinuous usage intentions by theorizing strain, addiction, and satisfaction as direct influencing factor that causes and/or inhibits them. In a second step, the influence of these variables on the intention-behavior relation is focused. We theorize that addiction as well as the ratio between satisfaction and strain moderate whether users transfer discontinuous usage intentions into non-usage behavior. To validate the subsequent research model we propose a longitudinal research setting and present initial results, whereupon satisfaction and strain - but not addiction - causes discontinuous usage intentions. We discuss our expected contributions by revealing that satisfaction, strain, and addiction influence whether a technology is used continuously; however, their influence on intentions and actual behaviors differs.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Innovation Success and Absorptive Capacity: The Combined Influence of Information Systems and Combinative Capabilities - A Theoretical Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

View Abstract
Innovation is important for a firm's success and has been shown to be essentially influenced by absorptive capacity (ACAP). ACAP has been conceptualized by various dimensions that, in turn, rest on diverse antecedents. Currently, little is known about the impact of information systems (IS) on these dimensions of ACAP. Drawing on the complementarity argument that IS will only render an effect if jointly employed with complementary organizational capabilities, we develop a research model that elucidates the interplay of organizational capabilities, ACAP, and their effect on innovation success. In particular, we deal with combinative capabilities by splitting these organizational capabilities into mechanisms and control modes. Addressing calls in the literature and from industry, this model contributes to our understanding of how to build and improve a firm's innovation capabilities by theorizing combinative capabilities and IS as antecedents of ACAP.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Using Social Software for Enhancing IS Talents' E-Learning Motivation
Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Cincinnati (OH)

View Abstract
In the aftermath of the global economic recession, 34% of all companies struggle to fill open positions. IS talents are the top-5 employees in demand. The countries' education systems are not flexible enough to provide enough workers with the right skills at the right point in time. E-learning could be part of the solution, if it were realizing its potential. The facts indicate that success of elearning in the academic context is considerable, but users are not enough motivated to participate in corporate e-learning inhibiting life-long learning. Given the advent of social software and its potential to increase user motivation, this paper specifically develops a model predicting the impact of social software features on user motivation to participate in corporate asynchronous elearning activities. Providing guidance for future e-learning research and implementations, it bases its findings on broad literature reviews.

Weinert, C., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Effect of Coping Mechanisms on Technology Induced Stress: Towards a Conceptual Model
Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago (IL)

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Information and communication technology induced stress, called technostress, influences users negatively. Numerous investigations are made about technostress; however, none consider the concept of coping in order to explain strategies to avoid these negative consequences. Therefore, this paper develops a theoretical model to explain the coping process and how it influences technostress. The model theorizes that threat and coping appraisal are major determinants of emotional- and problem-focused coping whereby coping resources and individual's controllability influence the choice and the efficacy of coping. The resulting problem- or emotional-focused coping strategies are theorized to moderate the stressor-train relationship such that negative consequences can be avoided. The theoretical model suggests a different perspective on the linear view on the relationship between stressors and strain by proposing the consideration of the moderation effect of coping.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
In the spotlight - evaluating how celebrities affect floss developers' participation motivation
Proceedings of the 21th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Utrecht, The Netherlands

View Abstract
Motivating one's workforce is a major challenge for organizations. Demotivated employees not only cause harm to organizations' productivity and innovation but also show increased turn-over intentions. As in the case of organizations, projects developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) depend strongly on the motivation of their contributors. Existing research repeatedly highlights project members' motivation for FLOSS projects' success and continuance. However, existing evaluations primarily treat project members' participation motives as exogenous constructs. As a result no operational advice can be derived for FLOSS projects on how to motivate their contributors. This research takes an alternative view and regards FLOSS developers' motivation as product of their self-determination and influences of their surrounding environment. Drawing on Self-Determination-Theory (SDT), we consider FLOSS developers' motivation as multi-dimensional and sensitive to environmental stimuli. As an example for such environmental stimuli we propose that project celebrities (members with a high standing in the FLOSS community) stimulate the participation motives of project members in different ways. An evaluation with 65 participants of Google Summer of Code (GSoC) largely supports our research model and provides evidence for the endogenous character of FLOSS developers' motivation. Our research results suggest that celebrities stimulate rather self-determined than externally regulated motives.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Together but apart - How spatial, temporal and cultural distances affect FLOSS developers' project retention
Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Cincinnati (OH)

View Abstract
Companies rely more and more on virtual teams which consist of globally dispersed members. Unfortunately, members' separation can raise considerable interpersonal challenges. In order to prevent conflicts from deescalating and ensure effective teamwork, companies pay careful attention to the management of members' spatial, temporal and cultural distances. While initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) similarly combine a worldwide distributed workforce, relatively little is known about how members' separation affects their collaboration. However, without such an understanding no adequate advice can be derived for managers of FLOSS initiatives on how to foster members' collaboration and retention. Building on lessons learned from the organizational domain this research hypothesizes that spatial, temporal and cultural distances are key factors for FLOSS developers' team integration and project retention. To evaluate our research hypotheses, we study FLOSS developers' contribution and conversation behavior and extract objective figures on their spatial, temporal and cultural distances to each other.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Towards understanding social software and its impact on corporate e-learning motivation
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Leipzig

View Abstract
This research combines recent discussions in the cross-disciplinary areas of e-learning, social software, and training motivation. On the one hand, e-learning with its role in a fast paced knowledge society, its potential to revolutionize education and the gap between research and practitioners is already in discussion for years. Discussions are becoming more intense with the rise of social software. On the other hand, human resources, life-long learning, and motivating employees to participate in trainings appear critical to organizations. This research focuses on e-learning in the corporate context and examines the impact of social software features on user motivation based on a review of training motivation literature and on 39 interviews conducted in an international IT services company. Findings suggest that the impact of social software features is still unknown, and that differentiating them by the learner's needs leads to further insights.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Role of Techno-Stressors and Techno-Exhaustion in Employees' Daily Work: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Orlando (FL)

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The research presented in this article aims to provide a more detailed understanding of work and techno-stressors, work- and techno-exhaustion, as well as consequences of these feelings and perceptions. Therefore, techno-stressors and exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work stressors, work exhaustion, and outcome variables, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed theory enables a comparison of whether technology or other work stressors induce feelings of exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes. Based on an empirical analysis (N=306), the results of our study show that techno-stressors have an impact on work stressors and techno-exhaustion is a contributing factor for work exhaustion. Next, we can show that the effects are different for IT and non-IT professionals as techno-exhaustion have an effect on each outcome variable for non-IT professionals, but not for IT professionals. The influence of techno-stressors is mediated on each outcome variable through techno-exhaustion for non-IT professionals but not for IT professionals. Furthermore, techno-exhaustion is significantly higher for non-IT professionals, even if they use IT at work far less than IT professionals, and techno-exhaustion has a stronger influence on non-IT professionals' overall work exhaustion. We conclude that techno-stress research has to consider whether occupations use IT daily as core of their working process or solely as a supporting instrument in order to provide a detailed explanation for technologies inducing stress at work.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Social Networks as a Source and Symbol of Stress: An Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

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This research examines the sources and consequences of stress when using online social networks (OSN). In a first step, the five OSN-induced stressors invasion, pattern, complexity, uncertainty, and disclosure are identified. In a second step, the Model of Continuous OSN Usage is developed in order to examine the influence of these five stressors. Therefore, the model is based on the Model of Adoption of Technology in Households and the Post-Acceptance Model. Results of an empirical analysis with 154 OSNs users reveal that 57 per cent of satisfaction and 64 per cent of continuous usage intention can be explained within the Model of Continuous OSN Usage. Notably, the five stressors have a higher strength of effect on satisfactions than the three attitudinal beliefs hedonic, utilitarian, and social outcomes altogether. In summary, the results offer a theoretical foundation for recent practical observations that OSNs are a source and symbol of stress.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Using User Personality to explain the Intention-Behavior Gap and Changes in Beliefs: A Longitudinal Analysis
Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando (FL)

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The research reported in this article intends to investigate whether individuals a) update degrees of beliefs over time and b) transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior in a different manner based on their personality. Therefore, the personality trait dispositional resistance is discussed within the Integrative Framework of Technology Use. Results of an empirical longitudinal analysis (N=145) show that individuals update their beliefs based on prior beliefs and usage behavior differently in accordance with their personality. Results also reveal that individuals transfer behavioral intentions into adoption behavior differently based on their personality. Hence, we discuss our contributions to technology adoption research by highlighting the importance of personality traits when investigating technology-related beliefs and behavior over time. Results also include an assessment of the findings' practical relevance by identifying which individuals maintain negative beliefs over time and by identifying the high extent of technology usage as a possibility for overcoming negative beliefs.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Empirical Evidence for an Individual's Dispositional Resistance to IT-Induced Changes
Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Seattle (WA)

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As information systems (IS) usage is the missing link from information technology (IT) investments to the business value impact of IT (DeLone and McLean 2003), it is a significant issue for IS researchers and practitioners, if individuals resist using these systems. Several recent models have been developed in order to offer insights which perceptual beliefs foster user resistance. Results reveal perceptual beliefs as perceived threats, technostress, or switching costs as major determinants for user resistance. Nevertheless, user resistance has not been researched from a perspective of predisposed individual differences so far. Consequently, this paper proposes the new construct dispositional resistance to IT-induced changes. This reflects inclinations to resist any kind of IT-related change and discusses resistance from the perspective of individual differences. Within this approach, it is theoretically hypothesized, how this inclination influences perceptual beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Empirical results reveal strong impacts of the newly proposed construct on technostress.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
When Social Networking Turns to Social Overload: Explaining the Stress, Emotional Exhaustion, and Quitting Behavior from Social Network Sites' Users
Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Barcelona, Spain
Best Paper Award Nominee

View Abstract
This research responds to a current phenomenon that individuals experience fatigue, while using social network sites, such as Facebook, which original intend to provide hedonic value to users. To explain this current phenomenon, we propose and evaluate a research model based on the stress-strain-outcome model. Focal point is the stressor social overload, which induces feelings of being emotional exhausted. For that reason, some users of social network sites start to get dissatisfied and report an increasing discontinuous usage intention. In addition, the research article provides evidence for the fact that the effect of stress on the two outcome variables satisfaction and discontinuous usage intention is fully mediated through strain. This is validated with an empirical survey with 523 Facebook users. Several implications for technology adoption research are discussed.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Train and Retain - The Impact of Mentoring on the Retention of FLOSS Developers
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Milwaukee (WI)
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
The acquisition of new knowledge is a critical task for software development. IT companies spend considerable resources in the training of their employees to succeed in a continuously changing industry. Depending on the voluntary commitment of their contributors, initiatives developing Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) identified members' learning and their retention as vital. Although contributors' knowledge building has been repeatedly found to facilitate their project continuance, FLOSS projects are lacking operational advices on how to assist their members' learning. Drawing on previous literature which emphasizes project members' social interactions and their practical experiences to build new knowledge, we propose mentoring as a training method for FLOSS projects. Based on organizational experiences, we propose a measure to evaluate mentoring as an appropriate strategy for FLOSS initiatives to facilitate individuals' learning and to retain their contributors on longitudinal base.

Wagner, H., Moos, B., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Contagious Power of Innovativeness: A Comparison of Different Types of Firm Partners
Proceedings of the Academy of Management Conference, Boston (MA)

View Abstract
Continuously innovating is known to provide firms with a competitive edge over rival firms. As innovations are often created in networks, a firm's partners exert an influence on the focal firm's innovative outcome. Although many studies deal with innovation networks and open innovation as a means to explore external knowledge and exploit knowledge externally e.g., dealing with characteristics of partnership agreements, there is virtually no research regarding characteristics of external partners. Namely, whether a focal firm's partners are innovative themselves and what the effects of this innovativeness on a focal firm's innovative outcome might be. This study considers different types of partners such as customers and suppliers and deals with the differential impact of partners` innovativeness on a focal firm's knowledge stock, absorptive capacity (ACAP), and innovation success. Drawing on literature on open innovation and ACAP and employing a survey in the manufacturing industry, we show whether a certain partner types' innovativeness is linked to innovation success, knowledge stock, and ACAP of a focal firm. E.g., we found that only the innovativeness of firms organized in clusters is positively and directly linked to innovation success, while customers' innovativeness influences positively and directly certain components of ACAP and knowledge stock.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Are we in the Right Profession? - Comparing Information Systems, Computer Science and other Disciplines' Professional's Perceptions of the Job Market
Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, Milwaukee (WI)

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Based on an empirical analysis with 2,887 professionals with different educational backgrounds, this research shows that Information Systems and Computer Science professionals are more optimistic toward the labor market and available job alternatives than other disciplines such as General Business Management, Engineering, or Social and Humane Science. The results underline that professionals in the IT field have a bright future for their further career. In times of shrinking information systems and computer systems enrollments, this promising prospect can support both undergraduate and graduate schools activities to promote their courses. Several implications for this issue will be discussed in the paper.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
The Implementation of Large-scale Information Systems in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - A Case Study of Work-and Health-related Consequences
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Using a case study of a financial service provider, this research provides a next step toward an answer to the question about the importance of an employee's attitude toward a newly introduced information system in light of a mandatory usage setting. Based on the Commitment to Change Model, the paper argues theoretically and provides case study evidence that negative attitudes toward new information systems influence work-related and health-related outcomes. The observed case indicates that a negative evaluation of a new financial information system leads to negative consequences such as decreased organizational commitment and overall job satisfaction as well as an increased turnover intention and a higher number of sick days. The results implicate that work- and health-related consequences are potential dependent variables for technology adoption research and that practitioners have to address these issues during the implementation of information systems in organizations.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Whom to ask for what knowledge? A comparison of exchange partners and their impact on knowledge types
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
From which sources does a firm acquire its knowledge? One of the most important key assets of a firm is its knowledge stock, which can be distinguished into different types of knowledge (e.g., market knowledge). This knowledge stock results from internal and/or from external sources such as exchange partners (e.g., customers). Our paper focuses on these external partners and investigates how the social capital residing in the relationships to these exchange partners is related to the creation of different types of knowledge. Thereby, this research generates practical guidelines for investing in a firm's network. Using data from 161 firms, the results show that (1) customers are the most important source for market knowledge; (2) regarding process, technological and organizational knowledge the combination of R&D partners and customers contributes the most; and (3) for product knowledge no single source being the most important knowledge contributor can be identified.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Who will remain? - An evaluation of actual Person-Job and Person-Team fit to predict developer retention in FLOSS-projects
Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

View Abstract
Today businesses and private households worldwide rely on Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). Most FLOSS-projects however are threatened in their existence due to a lack of sustained contributors. The early identification of developers who are likely to remain at the project is an eminent task for the management of FLOSS-initiatives. Previous research showed that the subjective judgment of individuals is often inaccurate emphasizing the need to objectively assess retention behavior. Consistent with the concepts Person-Job (P-J) and Person-Team (P-T) fit from recruitment literature, we derive objective measures to predict developer retention in FLOSS-projects. To evaluate our proposed measures we assess the retention of former Google Summer of Code (GSoC) students. The results show that students' prior level of project experience, expertise and communication intensity correlates strongly with their ongoing participation. Surprisingly, our analysis reveals that students with abilities that are underrepresented in the project do not remain considerably longer.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Knowledge domains, innovation success, and knowledge management systems: Evidence from an empirical study in the manufacturing industry
Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP 8.2/Organizations and Society in Information Systems (OASIS) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Shanghai, China

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Knowledge can be seen as a key asset of a firm for coming up with innovations. Therefore the knowledge stock of a firm comprising different domains like market or technological knowledge builds the basis for innovating successfully. Accordingly, the use of knowledge management systems is of great importance for building and enhancing the knowledge stock. The paper analyses the effect of each knowledge domain on innovations success and what the role of knowledge management systems is about within this context. Using data from 225 firms the results show that the use of knowledge management systems influences each knowledge domain positively and that for innovation success technological as well as process knowledge plays the most important role. Thereby our research gives practical guidelines for investigating into specific knowledge domains for generating innovation success.

Schilling, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Is the source strong with you? A fit perspective to predict sustained participation of FLOSS developers
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Despite the notable success of some Free Libre Open Source (FLOSS) projects, the overwhelming majority of FLOSS initiatives fail, mostly because of insufficient long-term participation of developers. In contrast to previous research which focuses on the individual perspective, we approach developer retention from an organizational perspective to help existing project members identify potential long-term contributors who are worth spending their time on. Methodically, we transfer two concepts from professional recruiting, Person-Job (P-J) and Person-Team (P-T) fit, to the FLOSS domain and evaluate their usage to predict FLOSS developer retention. An empirical analysis reveals that both fit concepts are appropriate to explain FLOSS retention behavior. Looking at contributor retention in Google Summer of Code (GSoC) projects, we find a moderate correlation with P-J fit and a weak correlation with P-T fit.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
An Instrument for Measuring SOA Maturity
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Existing empirical research on the business value of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) has only measured the extent of SOA adoption - but not maturity - to determine whether typical goals, like increased business agility or IT cost reduction, could be achieved. However, a widely implemented SOA might be less mature than an SOA adopted only in particular areas of the organization, which in turn can lead to mismeasurement and misinterpretation. On the other side, the few existing SOA maturity frameworks that have been specified by previous researchers lack valid operationalizations to make them applicable to empirical research. Ready to use items and scales for evaluating the particular maturity level of an organization are missing. We propose to measure the degree of SOA maturity as a new variable for future empirical research especially in the context of SOA business value. Our analytical approach uses 21 items to classify the maturity of an organization's SOA in seven maturity levels along seven maturity dimensions derived from The Open Group Service Integration Maturity Model (OSIMM). The applicability of this new instrument is shown using data from 121 organizations. The results show that the majority of the organizations has only reached SOA maturity levels two to four. Also, higher levels of SOA maturity highly and significantly increase the realized business value from SOA in terms of business agility, straight through processing (STP), and reduced IT costs. However, the marginal benefits are decreasing for higher levels of SOA maturity in cases of STP and business agility.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Does SOA Create or Require IT/Business Collaboration? Investigating SOA's Potential to Reduce the Gap Between IT and Business
Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China

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By extending the research on identifying the possible benefits of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), we investigate how SOA delivers its value in an organization. One perspective in the existing literature suggests that service orientation works through creating better IT/Business collaboration as the "services" concept is a shared mental model that reduces the mental gap between IT and business units. Another perspective proposes that SOA benefits require IT/Business collaboration in the first place as IT and business must closely collaborate in order to leverage SOA's potential. We develop a theoretical model to understand how service orientation and close collaboration between IT and business departments are related. An analysis using data from 122 organizations reveals that SOA does not advance - but rather requires - close collaboration between the IT and business departments (i.e., collaboration is a moderator, not mediator, between SOA and its impacts). Therefore, close IT/business collaboration is an important success factor for realizing SOA's value potential and must be established using other means.

Wirtky, T., Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Wild, U., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Going beyond operational efficiency in HR using IT - A Literature Review of Human Resources Information Systems
Proceedings of the 17th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Detroit (MI)

View Abstract
Leading academics claim that the management of human resources will be most critical in gaining competitive advantage. Today, the human resources departments (HR) are transforming themselves from an administrative cost-center to an internal partner delivering additional business value. In this transformation process, information technology (IT) could play a key role. Therefore, this paper aims to unfold both the current state of knowledge concerning the value contribution of information systems (IS) for the HR function and approaches that go even beyond operational efficiency. Reviewing nearly 8,000 articles, published in the proceedings of eight major IS conferences reveals that in total 35 articles exclusively deal with the topic of human resources information systems (HRIS) but only very few research approaches show, how HRIS could help to go beyond operational efficiency. Furthermore, the literature analysis identifies that approaches dealing with the IT support for HR planning processes are completely missing so far.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Reiss, Z. (2011)
Managing the Impact of Differences in National Culture on Social Capital in Multinational IT Project Teams - A German Perspective
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

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How can management handle relationship problems arising from cultural differences in multinational IT project teams? This paper uses a social capital lens to better understand the negative impact of cultural differences in IT project teams. In contrast to many previous works we do not consider cultural differences as a whole but explore the role of the different national culture dimensions. This allows for a more detailed view on cultural differences in a team context and thus contributes to a better understanding about which dimensions of national culture drive relationship problems and which management measures can help to dampen the negative effects. Based on several exploratory cases (6 multinational IT projects in 4 companies, headquartered in Germany), the authors identify three patterns showing typical problems in team social relationships which arise from differences in particular dimensions of national culture. Pattern-specific as well as general management measures, employed to address the culture-driven negative effects, are identified as well.

Moos, B., Beimborn, D., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Knowledge management systems, absorptive capacity, and innovation success
Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, Finland

View Abstract
Innovation is considered a major driving force for the prosperity of firms and entire economies. Research suggests that a firm's capacity to acquire and utilize relevant knowledge from internal and external sources, i.e. its absorptive capacity (ACAP), is decisive for innovation success. But what is the role of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) for a firm's ACAP and innovativeness? Surprisingly, despite lots of mature research on both, ACAP and KMS, there is a gap linking the two. This paper hence asks: What is the effect of knowledge management systems usage on absorptive capacity and innovation success? Responding to recent findings in the management and organizational sciences we develop a theoretical model that links the availability and usage of KMS with a firm's ACAP and its organizational knowledge to explain innovation success. An empirical evaluation using data from 224 manufacturing firms shows that a firm's KMS strongly contributes to its ACAP and catalyzes the innovation process. The results suggest that organizational knowledge is important for innovation success and that successful KMS work through enhancing particular facets of ACAP.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Trend is our Friend - German IT Personnel's Perception of Job-related Factors before, during and after the Economic Downturn
Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGMIS CPR Conference, San Antonio (TX), Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magid Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award
Winner of the ACM SIGMIS Magit Igbaria Outstanding Conference Paper of the Year 2011 Award

View Abstract
With the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers the global economic crisis has reached one of its summits. Before that time CIOs challenged high turnover rates of IT personnel and recruiting, developing and retaining the IT workforce was one of the most important concerns of CIOs. However, the global economic development has changed on the one side the challenges of organizations, and on the other side also the perception of job-related factors of IT talent. Based on this development we compare major IT turnover constructs using three empirical surveys in 2008, 2009 and 2010 in order to discuss how the global economic development influences the perceptions of job-related factors and turnover intentions of German IT personnel. The analysis showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment is decreasing since 2008, perceived job alternatives are increasing compared to 2009 and turnover intention has reached a maximum in 2010 compared to the two other years in question.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
SOA-Governance für effektive serviceorientierte Architekturen - Eine empirische Studie in der deutschen Dienstleistungswirtschaft
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Zürich, Schweiz

View Abstract
Sowohl die jüngere Forschung als auch die Erfahrung von Praktikern postulieren, dass eine SOA-Governance kritisch für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung von serviceorientierten Architekturen (SOA) ist. Dieser Beitrag bietet eine der ersten empirischen Untersuchungen bezüglich der Bedeutung verschiedener SOA-Governance-Mechanismen (Schaffung von Entscheidungsstrukturen, Nutzung von Standards, Verwendung von Servicemanagement- und Serviceentwicklungsprozessen, Qualifikation von Mit-arbeitern und Zusammenarbeit von Fachbereichen) für das Erreichen der gewünschten Modularität und einer hohen Wiederverwendungsrate. Die Ergebnisse basieren auf einer Umfrage unter deutschen Dienstleistungsunternehmen und zeigen, dass eine höhere Wiederverwendung nicht nur direkt durch verschiedene SOA-Governance-Mechanismen, sondern vor allem auch durch eine geeignetere Modularität als Mediator erreicht wird. Außerdem ist die Verwendung bestehender Entscheidungsstrukturen gegenüber der Schaffung neuer Entscheidungsstrukturen in Bezug auf die Erreichung von Modularität und Wiederverwendung zu favorisieren. Zuletzt wird ein starker Einfluss der Verwendung von Standards und klar definierter Servicemanagementprozesse auf die Effektivität von SOA deutlich.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Eine empirische Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages von serviceorientierten Architekturen (SOA)
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Zürich, Schweiz

View Abstract
Bisher wurde der Wertbeitrag der Nutzung von serviceorientierten Architekturen (SOA) für Unternehmen weder in der Praxis noch in der Forschung jenseits von Einzelfallbetrachtungen nachgewiesen. Wir untersuchen in einer ersten quantitativen Studie die realisierten Vorteile einer SOA-Nutzung im Hinblick auf Kostenreduktion, unternehmerische Agilität, Datenqualität, Prozess-Monitoring, interne Geschäftsprozessintegration (STP) und unternehmensübergreifende Integration (B2B). Die Analyse von 134 Unternehmensantworten zeigt, dass SOA zu allen sechs Unternehmensvorteilen beiträgt. Außerdem ist erkennbar, dass sich SOA in klassischen Aspekten flexibler IT-Infrastrukturen wie Modularität, Flexibilität und Skalierbarkeit widerspiegelt. Und auch die Realisierung von Unternehmensvorteilen durch SOA kann zu bedeutenden Teilen über die Verbesserung der IT-Flexibilität als Mediator erklärt werden.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., Schlosser, F., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
Die Bedeutung relationaler Faktoren für den IT-Wertbeitrag - Eine Studie unter den größten 1.500 US-Banken
Proceedings of the 10. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Zürich, Schweiz

View Abstract
Diese Arbeit untersucht die Auswirkung von operativem ITBusiness-Alignment sowie insbesondere der Gestaltung der Beziehungsschnittstelle zwischen verschiedenen Fachbereichen auf die Nutzungsintensität von Informationssystemen sowie auf die Geschäftsprozessleistung. Wir entwickeln ein theoretisches Modell unter Anwendung einer sozialen Perspektive auf Alignment und auf die Beziehungsschnittstelle und evaluieren es anhand einer Studie der IT-Nutzung im Firmenkreditprozess US-amerikanischer Banken. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Qualität der Beziehungsschnittstelle zwischen verschiedenen Fachbereichen einerseits und zwischen IT-Einheit und Fachbereichen (gemessen in Form von Vertrauen, gemeinsames Wissen und struktureller Interaktion) andererseits erhebliche Auswirkungen auf die Nutzung der Informationssysteme im Kreditprozess und darüber auf die Leistung des Kreditprozesses haben. Insbesondere der Zusammenhang im Dreieck operatives Alignment, Beziehungsschnittstelle zwischen Fachbereichen und Nutzung von Informationssystemen liefert einen neuen Beitrag zu unserem Verständnis des Geschäftswertbeitrages der IT.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Role of Innovation Governance and Knowledge Management for Innovation Success
Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
To innovate is one of the basic functions of a firm and a competitive necessity in dynamic markets. So what management mechanisms can a firm use to foster innovation success? This paper analyzes if knowledge management (KM) and innovation governance (IG) distinguish top innovation performers. Theoretically, we scrutinize if KM and IG mechanisms, composed of systems capabilities (organizational structures, policies, and processes) and coordination capabilities, are antecedents of absorptive capacity, knowledge stock and, eventually, innovation success of a firm. Using data from 204 firms, the results show that (1) IG and KM applying firms have significantly higher innovation success resulting from higher absorptive capacity and greater knowledge stock, (2) the most important IG mechanisms are measuring innovation success, using tools for monitoring the innovation process and a structured idea management, (3) KM drives innovation generation but not its transfer to products and markets.

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., Schroiff, A., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
The Social Network Structure of Alignment - A Literature Review
Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
The social network structure at the interface between a firm's business and IT units is of vital importance to business/IT alignment and hence an important IT governance object. Yet, there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures and how they affect IT business value. Based on a literature review that comprises articles published in eight top IS journals since 2000, this paper identifies social network structure characteristics which represent antecedents of alignment. These are subsequently translated into precise concepts of social network analysis (SNA). The identification and formalization of such social network structures allow IT governance to implement social engineering mechanisms in order to influence the social network structure and thus business/IT alignment and IT value. Examples for such translated arguments are a high degree centrality of CIOs vis-à-vis other executives and strong ties in terms of cross-domain knowledge between the CIO and other executives.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2011)
What Are Important Governance and Management Mechanisms to Achieve IT Flexibility in Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA)? An Empirical Exploration
Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
Recent research results and practitioner experience both posit that Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) governance is critical to successfully implement and utilize SOA. We investigate the impact of different SOA governance and management mechanisms (structures, processes, and employees) for leveraging SOA's potential to increase an organization's IT infrastructure flexibility. The results based on data from 73 SOA using organizations reveal: (1) a negative impact of implementing new decision-making bodies on 2 dimensions of IT flexibility (IT modularity and integration) (2) a positive impact of the SOA management processes service management and service development on 2 dimensions of IT flexibility (modularity and integration of IT infrastructure) (3) a positive impact of business units collaboratively identifying jointly utilizable services on modularity (4) and a particularly strong impact of standards, and also of employee qualification, on all dimensions of IT infrastructure flexibility.

Beimborn, D., Moos, B., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Impact of Knowledge Management on Absorptive Capacity
Proceedings of the 2010 IFIP 8.2/Organizations and Society in Information Systems (OASIS) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)
(Research in Progress)

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Influence of Social Structures on Business/IT Alignment
Proceedings of the 2010 JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)

View Abstract
Motivated by the importance of business/IT alignment for IT value creation and the fact that despite an extensive stream of literature discussing drivers of and success factors for alignment, the problem of reaching business/IT alignment is still not fully solved and alignment still ranks among the top three concerns of CIOs, we strive to explain alignment success based on the social structures present at the interface of business and IT on an operational level. While such structures at top management level are prominently discussed success factors of alignment, the analogues structures on the operational level have rarely been analyzed and there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures and how they affect IT business value. We extend our prior research, which identified social patterns that are potentially beneficial for business/IT alignment, by adding detailed explanations of why these are beneficial for business/IT alignment. Hence, this paper contributes to existing research by providing new insights to the general assumption that social structures are important and by explaining why, despite the vivid discussion, still many firms fail to establish business/IT alignment. We find that strong bridges at the interface between business and IT, as well as strong connections of interface actors with their management and their unit are advantageous for the creation of IT/business knowledge, solidarity between IT and business and the power of the interface actors between IT and business, and in this way are beneficial for business/IT alignment.

Schroiff, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Role of Social Network Structures in Outsourced Projects
Proceedings of the 2010 International Research Workshop on Information Technology Project Management (IRWITPM) (Pre-ICIS), St. Louis (MO)

View Abstract
IT management increasingly involves teams dispersed throughout a globalized world in internal as well as outsourced projects. In this work, we focus on the latter and analyze the impact of social network structures between vendor and client team members on project success. We present the findings of a comprehensive literature analysis and give an outlook on the ongoing empirical investigation. The goal is to propose a model linking structural properties of social networks to dimensions of success of outsourced IT projects. We base this model on indications found in prior research and the results of explorative case studies in outsourcing arrangements. Our findings so far show that the network density at the client-vendor interface and the multiplexity of ties are the salient, but not sole, network properties for which existing research implies an influence on success of outsourced IT projects. Case studies will reveal how and why these and other social network properties have an impact on project success.

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Investigating Adoption Determinants of Service-oriented Architectures (SOA)
Proceedings of the 2010 Special Interest Group on Services (SIGSVC) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), St. Louis (MO)
(Research in Progress)

Schroiff, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Structuring the Structure in Outsourcing Research - A Social Network Perspective on Outsourcing Relationship Management
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru

View Abstract
To what extent are structural assumptions veiled in extant outsourcing research? In this paper we suggest a unified view on social ties between individuals in outsourcing relationships. In a comprehensive literature analysis of outsourcing research since 2001, we identified structural assumptions and categorize them based on social network measures. Our analysis uncovers two salient patterns: 1) The gatekeeper vs. high density trade-off in interaction between client and vendor employees, and 2) the question whether the strength of ties between individuals can be too high for a professional outsourcing relationship. We present these patterns and other social network structures to formalize assumptions mostly not explicated yet considered important in existing outsourcing research. Based on our results, further research should analyze the impact of these patterns of social structure on outsourcing success.

Walentowitz, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Impact of Business/IT Social Network Structures on IT Service Quality
Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru

View Abstract
In this paper, we explore the basic premise that IT service quality follows the structure of business/IT interactions and thus highlight an important organizational design issue in IT governance. Motivated by concepts used in social network theory we build a model that proposes a causal relationship between structural characteristics of social business/IT networks and IT service quality. The model is empirically evaluated and explained using case studies based on five interviews in three firms. Thus we extend the general assumption that the business/IT partnership is crucial for IT service quality by identifying structural characteristics of the network among and between business and IT staff which enhance this partnership. Important results are that strong and bridging ties at the business/IT interface are crucial for IT service quality and that a good integration of interface actors within their own unit supports IT service quality.

Münstermann, B., Möderer, P., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Setting up and managing business process standardization: Insights from a case study with a multinational e-commerce firm
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

Moos, B., Beimborn, D., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Suggestions For Measuring Organizational Innovativeness: A Review
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
Innovativeness has emerged as a firm's key nonfinancial goal and as an important measure of organizational performance. But, the different measurement models used in empirical research impede the emergence of a consistent perspective on drivers and consequences of innovativeness. We reviewed 12 major journals from various disciplines and found 56 articles that provide measurement models for innovativeness. Based on reviewing and comparing these measurement models, we derive suggestions for a more comprehensive measure of innovativeness for future research.

Schlosser, F., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The Role of Internal Business/IT Alignment and IT Governance for Service Quality in IT Outsourcing Arrangements
Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Status Quo and Trends in E-Recruiting - Results from an Empirical Analysis
Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Examining the Relationship Between Trust and Control in IT Outsourcing Relationships
Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Verona, Italy

View Abstract
What is the role of control in maintaining trust in outsourcing relationships? Although the literature is quite rich on conceptualizing the relationship between control and trust in inter-organizational relationships, there exist quite sparse quantitative works which help to evaluate the models developed. In this paper, we analyze data from 156 IT outsourcing relationships of German banks in order to get insights into the actual relationships between different modes of control and the level of relational trust in these relationships. Additionally, we examine the role of service quality (measured in terms of reliability and responsiveness) in this context. The results show that trust is positively related with most modes of control, and that there is indicative evidence that control supports trust in high-service quality situations while it leads to a reduction of trust in relationships suffering from bad service quality (cycle of trust vs. distrust).

Beimborn, D., Moos, B., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
The Role of Client-internal Social Linkages for Outsourcing Success - An SNA Approach
Proceedings of the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), San Francisco (CA)

View Abstract
What is the role of a firm's internal social relations between business departments and IT unit for the success of its IT outsourcing relationship? In this paper, we propose that the relationship between business and IT of a firm is crucial for achieving effective outsourcing management and for enabling the vendor to deliver the services as demanded. Since the business side of the client firm represents the users of the information systems but the IT unit represents the interface to the outsourcing vendor firm, interaction between both units is proposed to be required for maintaining a good outsourcing relationship. Based on a survey in the German Banking Industry and by adopting a Social Network Analysis Approach which captures the interaction structure within the client firm and thus represents an innovative scale to outsourcing research, we show that tight social linkages within the client firm lead to higher service quality achieved by the vendor firm.

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Join the standard forces - Examining the combined impact of process and data standards on business process performance
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Proposing a theoretical model for IT governance and IT business alignment
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Online Gaming to Apply for Jobs - the Impact of Self- and E-Assessment on Staff Recruitment
Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
The process of recruiting employees has changed since the internet entered enterprises. From simply posting job ads and information on the internet to online application forms and holistic e-recruiting system architectures the way of recruiting has changed a lot. With the introduction of virtual worlds and the increasing number of online games this paper is discussing the next step of e-recruiting: online games to apply for jobs. With a single explorative case study the implementation of self- and e-assessment as online games could be explained. Furthermore with an SEM based on the empirical data of a survey with the Fortune 1,000 companies in Germany (response rate 19.1%) evidence for the motivation of companies to use online games can be provided. Perceived quality improvements, perceived cost savings and perceived time savings as well as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are the most important drivers for companies intending to use online games in staff recruitment.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
A Social Linkage View on the Business Value of IT
Proceedings of the 2008 JAIS Theory Development Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

View Abstract
Our research intends to explore whether a social perspective on IT business alignment can help shed light on the IT value creation process by considering different facets of interpersonal linkage. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model which could be discussed at the JAIS workshop. Further, we use some empirical data from 149 US banks in order to find first empirical evidence whether our research focus represents a promising direction. We find initial support for our main hypotheses that communication, cross-domain knowledge and mutuality among and between IT and business staff significantly impact IT usage and business process outcomes. The final results of our research could contribute to our understanding of how the IT resource should be understood and used to measurably contribute to firm goals. The initial findings support the caveat of recent studies suggesting that informal aspects of alignment might be quite notable (e.g. Chan, 2002) and show that our theoretical understanding of alignment should be extended to better incorporate social aspects of daily work life.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Hire Education For Firms - Successful IT Hires in Five Firms
Proceedings of the 14th SIM Academic Workshop (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Paris, France

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Recruiting IT Professionals in a Virtual World
Proceedings of the 12th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Suzhou, China

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Reconsidering Subjective Norm - A Multilayer-Framework for Modeling Normative Beliefs in IT Adoption
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, ON, Canada

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Do as your Competitors Do? - Analyzing Competitors' Influence on the Non-Adoption of Information Systems In Organizations
Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Galway, Ireland

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Extending the Architecture for a Next-Generation Holistic E-Recruiting System
Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Niagara Falls (ON), Canada

Beimborn, D., Hirschheim, R., Schlosser, F., Schwarz, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
How to Achieve IT Business Alignment? Investigating the Role of Business Process Documentation in US and German Banks
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto (ON) Canada

Beimborn, D., Hirschheim, R., Schlosser, F., Schwarz, A., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Comparing the Operational Integration of a Core Information System in Insourcing and Outsourcing Firms
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto (ON), Canada

Münstermann, B. and Weitzel, T. (2008)
What is process standardization?
Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM), Niagara Falls (ON), Canada

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Drivers and Inhibitors of SOA Business Value - Conceptualizing a Research Model
Proceedings of the 14th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Toronto, Canada

View Abstract
What is the business value of Service Oriented Architecture? Although the SOA paradigm has become quite evident in IS literature, a comprehensive model of the SOA business value is still lacking. Based on a literature review and on a multitheoretical foundation, drawing on the adoption of innovations literature and on the resource-based view as well as on resource dependency theory, we attempt to develop a research model which captures the business value of SOA, applicable to empirical research in subsequent studies.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2008)
IT Business Alignment as Governance Tool for Firm-Internal Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Case Study
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Many business processes are relying on a smooth and flexible IT support. A major finding of IS research is that in order to generate value from IT the complementarities between IT and non-IT resources need to be understood and orchestrated. Especially, IT Business Alignment has been found to be a key driver of both, IT value and business process quality. <b>But how to achieve alignment?</b><br><br> We present the results of a longitudinal case study in a globally active firm from the aerospace industry that shows how a new CEO implemented better business processes by increasing alignment. The results show an enhancing relationship between business and IT resources and concretize key findings from the resource based view. Overall, the case contributes by indicating that business value accrues from a simultaneous change of IS and business practices that was enabled by an increase in the level of IT business alignment.

Martin, S., Beimborn, D., Parikh, M., and Weitzel, T. (2008)
Organizational Readiness for Business Process Outsourcing: A Model of Determinants and Impact on Outsourcing Success
Proceedings of the 41th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

Beimborn, D., Schlosser, F., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
What makes successful banks successful? - The key role of alignment in financial process quality
Proceedings of the 2007 SIM Academic Workshop on IT Business Alignment (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Montreal (QC), Canada

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Proposing an Instrument for Evaluating the Business Value of Service-Oriented Architectures
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Applications and Services in Finance Industry (FinanceCom) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Montreal (QC), Canada

View Abstract
This paper presents a framework assisting managers in their decision making about introducing a service-oriented architecture (SOA). The benefits, risks and efforts associated with SOA are discussed from a business value perspective. The paper contributes to the literature by suggesting a unified foundation for the debate on the business value of SOA by proposing concrete value drivers and their interrelations.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
The Impact of Operational Alignment on IT Flexibility - Empirical Evidence from a Survey in the German Banking Industry
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

View Abstract
Alignment and IT flexibility have been found to be crucial for a firm's long-term success in many indus-tries. This paper investigates how alignment and flexibility are interrelated at an operational level. Based on a survey with Germany's Top 1,000 banks we show on a business process level that shared knowledge and mutual understanding (as dimensions of alignment) between IT unit and business department have a positive impact on IT flexibility. On the other hand, higher degrees of communication between business and IT units do not correlate with higher IT flexibility.

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Business Process Outsourcing: The Challenge of Process Standardization
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Outsourcing of Information Services (ICOIS), Heidelberg

Eckhardt, A., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Buschbacher, J. (2007)
How to Convince People who don't Like IT to Use IT - A Case Study On eRecruiting
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

Martin, S., Beimborn, D., Parikh, M., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Getting ready for success: may alignment be of help?
Proceedings of the 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Keystone (CO)

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
The Influence of Alignment on the Post-Implementation Success of a Core Banking Information System: An Embedded Case Study
Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
The literature suggests that the success of an information system among others depends on its utilization. In this paper, we argue that operational IT business alignment is an important driver of system usage and thereby of the market success of the supported business process. Using an embedded case study in four branches, the back office, and the IT department of a retail bank, many findings of the recent alignment literature can be supported. Using a strict business process perspective, we also offer new insights by showing that alignment is important for IS success in operations as well and positively influences post-implementation IS usage. In particular, mutual understanding between the units and shared domain knowledge not only between IT and business but also between different business units supported by the same core IS turned out to be very important factors of IS usage that have so far been neglected.

Wüllenweber, K. and Weitzel, T. (2007)
An empirical exploration of how process standardization reduces outsourcing risk
Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Are standardized business processes less risky to outsource? Despite the importance of both areas, neither the outsourcing nor standardization literature has so far offered a conclusive picture of the value of standards to outsourcing. We aim to provide an exploratory first step by suggesting that process standards have a positive impact on business process outsourcing (BPO) risk. Theoretically drawing from perceived risk theory and the theory of reasoned action we develop a model of BPO risk and empirically show that indeed risk perception is higher for less standardized processes. Using data from 126 German banks, it turns out that financial and performance risks of BPO significantly differ between high- and low-standardized processes and are consistently higher for less standardized processes. While this work is very exploratory and the findings are quite preliminary, they are very encouraging as they indicate promising further research into the value of standards for business processes and outsourcing.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Impact of Outsourcing on IT Business Alignment and IT Flexibility: A Survey in the German Banking Industry
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
The ability to outsource IT has been suggested as a major driver of IT productivity. At the same time, the literature on the business value of IT suggests that IT business alignment and IT flexibility are important drivers for the performance of IT. But what is, then, the impact of outsourcing on these key value drivers? In this paper, we empirically show that firms with internal IT exhibit significantly better IT business alignment and IT flexibility.

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategies to Boost Standard Diffusion in Communication Networks - Insights from Network Effect Theory
Proceedings of the 2006 Special Interest Group on Adoption and Diffusion of Information Technology (DIGIT) (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Milwaukee (WI)

View Abstract
IT standards are subject to network effects which establish challenges concerning a successful diffusion of standards. A renowned example is a mobile service provider trying to establish a network of customers while potential user often wait until the network is sufficiently large in terms of other users (direct network effect) or content available (indirect effect). Despite the potential benefits to adopters and providers, there is still much uncertainty on the differential impact of direct and indirect network effects on the diffusion of standards and their impact on successful diffusion strategies to establish a user base. Our research questions thus are: (a) ...what are the adoption drivers of IT standards and (b) ...how can providers influence these drivers to develop an installed base? Based on network effect theory, we propose a formal model that simultaneously considers the different effects of direct and indirect network effects on the diffusion of communication standards. Using com-puter-based simulations we can show that IT providers could exploit the alternating impact of direct and indirect network effects at different diffusion stages to successfully establish an installed base. This has fundamental implications for the provider's pricing and market strategy.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Operational IT Business Alignment as the Missing Link from IT Strategy to Firm Success
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
Strategic alignment deals with the capability of IT to both shape and support business strategy. It can be interpreted as an organizational learning process that combines business and IT knowledge to support business objectives and can positively affect organizational profitability by creating superior strategies that achieve a competitive advantage. These strategies have to be implemented, because strategies are only effective when they are translated into actions readily. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the concept of operational IT business alignment, reflecting the functional integration at the structural level and representing the link between business and IT structure. Using structural equation modeling and data from 136 banks we show that operational IT business alignment positively impacts dynamic IT and business capabilities and in turn strategic alignment and firm performance.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Social Interaction as Constituting Element of Routines: Incorporating Social Network Analysis into IS research
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
Organizational routines known from the Resource-based View (RBV) are considered elementary for IT value creation as they determine the efficiency with which firms transform inputs to outputs. As routines are socially complex patterns of inter-action, we incorporate findings from the literature on the Resource-based view and Social Network Analysis to disclose the social formation of organizational routines as a constituting element. Our model extends the central findings of the RBV by considering the impact of the social embeddedness of a firm's employees using Granovetter's strength of ties argument. The proposed model can be used for a sensitivity analysis regarding the impact of different interaction patterns between and among organizational units on business process performance. The model provides good support for the effects cited in the literature and is illustrated by a case.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategy Matters - The Role of Strategy Type for IT Business Value
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

View Abstract
There is a general consensus among practitioners and researchers alike that IT business alignment improves business performance. Alignment mostly is researched at a strategic level, but has to be implemented in daily operations to be effective. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the concept of operational IT business alignment, reflecting the functional integration at the structural level and representing the linkage between business and IT structure. Using structural equation modeling and data from 136 banks we show that operational IT business alignment positively impacts IS usage and IT flexibility and in turn process performance. Furthermore it is shown that the effect of IT business alignment strongly depends on the type of business strategy a bank follows.

Keim, T. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Strategies for Hiring IT Professionals: An Empirical Analysis of Employer and Job Seeker Behavior on the IT Labor market
Proceedings of the 12th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Acapulco, Mexico

Son, S., Gladyszewski, T., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Value of Management Control in IT Organizations
Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Göteborg, Sweden

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2006)
Examining the Value of Management Control in IT Organizations
Proceedings of the 17th Information Resources Management Association International Conference (IRMA), Washington, D.C.

Weitzel, T. (2006)
Process governance and optimization for IT Reliant Business Processes: an empirical analysis of financial processes in Germany's Fortune 1,000 non-banks
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
What is the impact of process orientation, analysis and documentation on process quality? In this paper, using financial processes in non-banks ("financial chain") as application domain an optimization framework for IT reliant business process is proposed and empirically evaluated. It is shown that a proper process orientation, documentation and process analysis is a necessary yet often neglected prerequisite for efficiency improvements. The framework can be used for preparing the business case for integration and outsourcing projects. Overall, the results empirically confirm the often neglected claim that you need to explicitly know and measure what you want to optimize.

Malinowski, J., Keim, T., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Matching People and Jobs: A Bilateral Recommendation Approach
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
Recommendation systems are widely used on the Internet to assist customers in finding the products or services that best fit with their individual preferences. While current implementations successfully reduce information overload by generating personalized suggestions when searching for objects such as books or movies, recommendation systems so far cannot be found in another potential field of application: the personalized search for subjects such as applicants in a recruitment scenario. Theory shows that a good match between persons and jobs needs to consider both, the preferences of the recruiter and the preferences of the candidate. Based on this requirement for modeling bilateral selection decisions, we present an approach applying two distinct recommendation systems to the field in order to improve the match between people and jobs. Finally, we present first validation test runs from a student experiment showing promising results.

Beimborn, D. and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Game Theoretical Analysis of Cooperative Sourcing Scenarios
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
A possible trend in outsourcing, cooperative sourcing is the merging of similar processes by several firms. For example, several banks could merge their payments processes and the underlying IT to jointly realize economies of scale. But what are conditions of stable outsourcing coalitions? And how to allocate costs within the outsourcing value web? In this paper we present a micro economic model for analyzing cooperative sourcing decisions. Using a game-theoretical equilibrium analysis, distribution rules of cooperative sourcing benefits are evaluated and necessary condition for stable sourcing cooperations are identified. We formally prove that only a proportional allocation of costs will regularly lead to stable coalitions. Still, a game theoretic experiment indicates that deciders not knowing about the results are more likely to choose inefficient allocations leading to instable sourcing networks.

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
IT Business Alignment and IT Usage in Operational Processes: A Retail Banking Case
Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai (HI)

View Abstract
What is the impact of operational (i.e. non-strategic) IT business alignment on IT usage? Using case studies in three branches of a retail bank employing identical information systems, many findings of the alignment literature can be supported. The cases also add new insights by showing that alignment is important in operations as well, and that alignment positively impacts IT usage. Especially mutual understanding between the business units and the IT unit turned out to be the single most important factor of IT usage that resulted from frequent interaction and, as far as the IT unit is concerned, from the business orientation of the IT personnel.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2005)
IT Performance Management - Methodology, Metrics and Application
Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control (EIASM), Nice, France

View Abstract
As many organizations search for ways to compete more effectively in today's ever-growing markets, managers are increasingly focusing on internal services. One internal service function that has especially gained a lot of attention is Information Technology (IT) due to the enormous size of its expenditure. Increasingly, decision authorities within private and public sector companies are insisting that IS executives provide hard facts on IT mission and performance. Key performance indicators, governance structures, and new reference models (e.g. CobiT) are aimed at demonstrating how well the IT department and relating processes perform and improve over time. In this context, IT governance has evolved as a challenge to provide a management control system that aims to annul various frequently found disadvantages of uncoordinated decisions, lack of transparency and insufficient alignment between business and IT goals. Based on a comprehensive analysis of current performance management frameworks, we have designed and deployed an IT management scorecard within a Major European Financial Institution. The paper provides valuable insigths concerning the different implementation steps of IT scorecards and related problems.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2005)
Designing a process-oriented framework for IT performance management systems
Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE), Turku, Finnland

View Abstract
This paper show, which concepts and frameworks currently exist to measure the performance of the IT department and it's delivered, IS services. We discuss how a performance management system might be designed and implemented with the purpose to monitor and improve the IT function. A performance metrics catalogue has been elaborated to document and to enable a common understanding of the individual metrics. Finally, this paper provides lessons learned and some recommendations for further research in the area of IT performance management.

Franke, J., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of IT Business Alignment for Value Creation: A Multiple Case Study among German Banks
Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Las Vegas (NV)

View Abstract
The ways in which IT creates business value is a key question in IS research and practice. In this paper, we aim to help reveal the role of alignment between IT and business resources in business value creation. In particular, we propose that the contribution of IT to business process performance should be investigated in the context of actual IT usage, with IT business alignment as a moderating variable. Also, IT flexibility should be explicitly considered. Using five case studies from the German financial services industry based on a causal model of IT business value creation reveals that the process of IT business value creation indeed strongly depends on the alignment between business and IT. But it also turns out that actual presence of business competencies is crucial and that even superior IT cannot compensate for business competency deficiencies.

Malinowski, J., Keim, T., Weitzel, T., and Wendt, O. (2005)
Decision Support for Team Building: Incorporating Trust into a Recommender-Based Approach
Proceedings of the 9th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Bangkok, Thailand

View Abstract
In this paper we present a novel automated recommendation approach to support the selection of individuals to teams. Recent organizational trends show an increasing importance of team-based work structures and more and more companies use this team-focused structure with the hope to increase organizational effectiveness. Whereas traditional selection systems are focused on finding a match between job requirements and individuals' abilities, these systems need to be changed in order to reflect the enhanced requirements when selecting individuals to work in teams. This is important as teamwork requires interaction among its members and not just co-action. Our approach is therefore based on two dimensions. First, people need to be matched to jobs for which they possess the right knowledge, skills and abilities to fulfill all tasks. Second, people need to fit with the other people they are supposed to work with in terms of interpersonal compatibility. Based on an adapted probabilistic latent aspect model and a trust computational model we present a first prototype aiming to support the systematic selection of individuals to form effective teams.

Malinowski, J., Keim, T., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Analyzing the Impact of IS Support on Recruitment Processes: An E-Recruitment Phase Model
Proceedings of the 9th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Bangkok, Thailand

View Abstract
The skills and abilities of a company's employees are a prerequisite for the enterprise to be innovative. In case the know-how needed to accomplish certain tasks is not available internally or cannot be developed within reasonable time, the company needs to address to the external labor market, e.g. by recruiting experts possessing the skill sets required. However, for rare candidate profiles there exists intense competition on the labor market. Thus, the ability to act within short periods of time when interacting with candidates becomes crucial. In the past, multiple elements of IS support provided many different benefits to improve the recruitment process. However, little research to date exists on what forms of IS support are adapted for what application scenarios within the recruitment arena. Therefore, this paper analyzes how the recruitment process can be optimized and what different levels of E-Recruitment adoption can be identified. We present results from quantitative and qualitative research showing that E-Recruitment functionality can be found in most companies nowadays ranging from isolated solutions for singular activities to integrated end-to-end solutions. Based on these findings we derive managerial guidelines for the management of projects in the E-Recruitment field.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Drivers and Inhibitors for Outsourcing Financial Processes - A Comparative Survey of Economies of Scale, Scope, and Skill
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

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Economies of scale, scope, and skill are known to be major drivers or inhibitors for outsourcing business processes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of economies of scale, scope, and skill achievable by outsourcing financial processes in non-banks and banks based on two empirical studies conducted with Fortune 1,000 non-banks and Fortune 500 banks in Germany. It can be shown that industrialization tendencies within the credit business in banks are in parts broader sophisticated than within financial processes of other industries. Credit process managers estimate economies of scale and skill achievable by outsourcing to be higher than chief financial officers do. Furthermore, economies of scope, which inhibit selective sourcing, are evaluated as being less problematic. As a result, the credit process managers' disposition to outsource (parts of) primary financial processes in banks is higher compared to the CFOs' attendance to outsource parts of their secondary financial processes in non-banks. In accordance with common knowledge, economies of scale and skill are identified as drivers for outsourcing business processes while economies of scope represent an inhibitor. In contrast to common knowledge, our studies suggest German banks being on the way to industrialization and modularization.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The role of alignment for strategic information systems: extending the resource-based perspective of IT
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

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The importance of strategic information systems in the financial industry is documented in many studies. But still there is a virulent lack of frameworks to explain the profit impact of IT in general and to guide firms in exploiting the IT resource as a source of competitive advantage. By incorporating findings from different research strands on the resource based view (RBV) and the strategic alignment literature we elaborate key concepts potentially leading to a sustained competitive advantage. These concepts are explicitly modeled and integrated into a financial services production function using the well-developed instruments of microeconomic theory. Especially interactions between the IT and business domain are found to be a key success driver. Supported by four case studies from the financial services industry it is shown how IT business alignment positively impacts process quality and in turn establishes a competitive advantage. Our findings suggest that the exploitation of strategic information systems in the sense of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage requires establishing an organizational routine of cross-departmental interaction.

Keim, T., Malinowski, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Bridging the Assimilation Gap: A User-Centered Approach to IT-Adoption in Corporate HR Processes
Proceedings of the 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Omaha (NE)

König, W., Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Sourcing von Finanzprozessen - Ein Modell zur simultanen Bewertung von Economies of Scale und Scope
Proceedings of the 7. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Bamberg

View Abstract
Während viele Unternehmen Fortschritte in der IuK-Technologie zur Automatisierung ihrer primären Prozesse, zu einer internen und externen Vernetzung und letztlich zur Neuaufteilung und Optimierung der gesamten Wertschöpfungskette genutzt haben, wurden Sekundärprozesse selten als eigener Optimierungsgegenstand betrachtet. In einer empirischen Studie zu sekundären Finanzprozessen in den 1.000 größten deutschen Unternehmen (ohne Banken und Versicherungen) wird gezeigt, dass vor einer Outsourcing-Entscheidung kulturelle Hürden der Entscheider zu überwinden sind. Es zeigt sich insbesondere, dass die individuelle Outsourcing-Erfahrung der entscheidenden Manager von Bedeutung ist und dass Economies of Scale und Scope getrennt betrachtet und damit mögliche Trade-offs häufig ignoriert werden. Zur Erweiterung der reinen Outsourcing-Entscheidung im Hinblick auf viel versprechende Modelle des kooperativen Outsourcing wird untersucht, wer geeignete Partner für eine selektive Auslagerung von Teilprozessen durch eine Kreuzung der eigenen Wertschöpfungskette mit derjenigen des Partners (Value Chain Crossing) sein können. Aufbauend auf diesen empirischen Ergebnissen wird ein Simulationsmodell vorgestellt, welches insbesondere die simultane Betrachtung verschiedener Einflussfaktoren der Outsourcing-Entscheidung erlaubt.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Impact of IT On Competitive Advantage: A microeconomic approach to making the resource-based view explicit
Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Regensburg

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How can an organization establish an efficient IS resource? Over the years, the resource-based view (RBV) has provided important insights into the value creation by IT. Unfortunately, large parts of the literature suffer from broad and ambiguous constructs that are problematic to validate and difficult to concretely apply. Furthermore, the transmission from IT resources on one side to competitive advan-tage on the other is not yet sufficiently understood. Goal of this paper is to clarify some of the often used constructs and build a framework for the transmission from the endowment with resources to the achievement of competitive advantage. In this paper, we aim to contribute to this research strand in two ways. First, a model incorporating many isolated findings from the RBV is developed. Reflecting the need for a process view as proposed by large parts of the alignment and strategic management literature, this is integrated into a single process framework of analysis. Second, by developing a microeconomic IT service production function incorporating organizational routines the transmission from IT resource to better business process performance is explicated, allowing simultaneous parameter sensitivity analysis and contributing to making the RBV applicable and open for empirical research.

Wagner, H. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Modeling the Impact of Alignment Routines on IT Performance: An Approach to Making the Resource based View Explicit
Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

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This paper investigates the link between IT and firm performance by combining different theoretical perspectives and emphasizing the role of routines in IT-Business alignment. The basic concept of routines is operationalized and presented in an algebraic form allowing for explicit modeling and using of findings from the literature on the resource based view (RBV) and IT-Business alignment. How to use IT to gain a sustainable competitive advantage and in turn a plus in firm performance is a key question in IS research. This paper examines the RBV and alignment literature and elaborates the importance of routines in both perspectives. The results show routines are a basic underlying concept to understand the linkage between IT resources and firm performance. This basic concept is operationalized showing the functional relationships known from literature. The paper therefore advances theory and informs practice by combining different theoretical perspectives and making them explicit.

Keim, T. and Weitzel, T. (2005)
An Integrated Framework for Online Partnership-Building
Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

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Research in information sciences in recent years has dealt with how to support collaborative work across time, space and organizational boundaries. However, this research neglected the question of how information systems can contribute right at the beginning of virtual work in the design phase of the team. Team configuration can be modeled as a two-dimensional matching problem: individuals need to be brought together (1) with tasks for which they posses the competencies to carry them out and (2) with other individuals with whom they are able to collaborate successfully. It is understood that multiple dimensions of human as well as social capital and here especially of trust play an important role in the underlying decision process. Based on existing research in multiple fields we develop a framework permitting to establish successful virtual partnership. We present an implementation of this framework together with first promising validation results of the approach chosen.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and Franke, J. (2004)
Outsourcing the Financial Chain: an Empirical Analysis of Sourcing and Partnering Potentials
Proceedings of the 10th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), New York (NY)
Best Paper Award/Best Outsourcing Paper

View Abstract
While many firms have used advancement in information and communication technology to optimize their supply chain and primary processes, there is still a substantial efficiency potential associated with financial processes. In this paper, a conceptual framework for a systematic financial chain management is developed. Based on this, an empirical survey with the Fortune 1,000 enterprises of Germany shows that while outsourcing of the financial chain is still quite rare it can be successfully used to focus on core competencies. A main finding is that CFOs tend to systematically overestimate the quality of their financial processes and especially the firm's competencies compared to external experts. This is an important cultural barrier to a value redesign that could offer substantial efficiency improvements.

Lammers, M., L, N., and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Strategic Sourcing in Banking - A Framework
Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Turku, Finnland

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The banking landscape in Europe and Germany has a polypolistic market structure with an average vertical range of integration of 80%, implying high process redundancies. Accumulating processes for standardized products is one way to achieve efficiency improvements. "Smart sourcing" can change the production mix of banks lead to a concentration of processes. A challenge is the lack of consistent frameworks for the banking industry to systematically support the sourcing decision process. In this paper, drawing on the resource based view and transaction cost economics it is shown that, in addition to a make or buy decision, co-operation between competitors should be included into a sourcing analysis as the third alternative. To support the decision on making, buying or sharing an activity, a quantitative analysis of each activity of the banking value chain is necessary. We propose an analysis framework based on a generic banking value chain. Since the recent literature mostly focuses only on the outsourcers' case, a formalized model is developed to consider both the objective function of the out- and the insourcer. Since the market might restrict sourcing options, as there may be no providers of relevant activities, it can be shown that &rdquo;sharing&ldquo; as part of a co-opetition concept instead of buy or make can be a way to break up the value chain. The framework thus supports decision makers to approach an optimal degree of vertical integration for both market sides.

Färber, F., Keim, T., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
An Automated Recommendation Approach to Personnel Selection
Proceedings of the 9th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Tampa (FL)

Weitzel, T. (2003)
A Network ROI
Proceedings of the 2003 MISQ Academic Workshop on ICT Standardization (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seattle (WA)

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In this paper, a method for determining the equilibrium under which firms will cooperate concerning their standardization decisions is developed. From a theoretical perspective, the network ROI concept is aimed at synchronizing local and global efficiency disturbed by network effects by explicitly determining the value impact of standardization and using it for optimizing enterprise internal decisions concerning standards (i.e. internalizing network effects). From a managerial perspective, ROI based methods are reasonably simple and especially widely accepted. Since the costs of solution determination are considered (by a &rdquo;virtual instance&ldquo;), the concept might be applied by a cost center unit responsible for standardization. Methodologically, the solution is developed using basic game theory to understand the discrepancy between local and global efficiency in standardization decisions and later applied to a network of six enterprises as part of an extensive case study.

Beck, R., Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
The Network Effect Helix
Proceedings of the 2003 MISQ Academic Workshop on ICT Standardization (Pre-ICIS Workshop), Seattle (WA)

Pfaff, D., Skiera, B., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Datenintegration in Finanzprozessen
Bonner Köllen Verlag (ISBN 3-88579-363-6)

View Abstract
Die Philosophie des Supply-Chain-Management (SCM) hat durch eine Orchestrierung der Güter-, Finanz- und Informationsflüsse Effizienzpotenziale erschließen können. Während traditionelles SCM erfolgreich vor allem auf die Güter- und Informationslogistik fokussiert, finden sich bei Finanzprozessen noch ungenutzte Potenziale. Dieser Beitrag zeigt auf Grundlage einer empirischen Untersuchung die Integrationsproblematik in der Financial-Chain (FC) bei deutschen Top-1.000-Unternehmen auf. Nicht ausreichend integrierte Systeme sind der Hauptgrund für Rechnungsreklamationen und damit ein vermeidbarer Hauptkostentreiber. Hierauf aufbauend wird skizziert, wie eine skalierbare bedarfsgerechte Integration im Rahmen eines XML-Warehouse realisiert werden kann.

König, W. and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Netzeffekte im E-Business
Proceedings of the 6. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Dresden

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Eine grundlegende Fragestellung im E-Business liegt in der geeigneten Vernetzung verschiedener Akteure. Dabei gibt es netzwerkspezifische Koordinationsprobleme, die aus der Existenz von Netzeffekten resultieren. Gegenstand dieses Beitrages ist eine ökonomische Analyse der Existenz und Effizienz von Gleichgewichten in Kooperationsnetzen. Computersimulationen zeigen vielversprechende Resultate bezüglich der prinzipiellen Lösbarkeit "klassischer" Netzwerkprobleme wie insbesondere des Start-up-Problems.

Weitzel, T., Tesch, T., and Fankhauser, P. (2003)
A scalable approach to processing large XML data volumes
Proceedings of the 9th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Tampa (FL)

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The emerging penetration of IT architectures with XML leads to increasing XML data volumes. Available tools often fail in realizing scalable XML processing for large XML data volumes. This paper introduces Infonyte-DB, a persistent XML Processor that economizes on system resources and allows processing large XML data volumes. Based on concrete application scenarios it is illustrated how Infonyte-DB can be deployed for XML based web services, technical documentation, and mobile information management.

Weitzel, T., Gellings, C., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
IS Valuation Methods - Insights from Capital Markets Theory and Practice
Proceedings of the 7th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Adelaide, Australia

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In this paper, an analogy between IT firm valuation and IS valuation is used to learn from how investment banking professionals cope with the renowned valuation problem. It becomes clear that theoretically sound approaches like the discounted cash flow might be inappropriate to determine the true value of a software company. Especially for IT valuation, real options approaches are a promising way of capturing the &rdquo;true&ldquo; underlying value to new technologies. Unfortunately, as expert interviews reveal, the importance of this approach in investment banking practice is negligible.

Färber, F., Keim, T., Wendt, O., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
A Model-based Approach to Recommending Partners
Proceedings of the 6. International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik , Dresden

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Searching for and selecting qualified partners is a core task in many business contexts. Empirical research among Germany's top 1,000 firms discloses that internet-based platforms are effectively used as a personnel marketing channel but cannot increase the matching quality between jobs and candidates. Using erecruitment as an example, we show how the matching quality can be substantially improved by means of a probabilistic latent aspect model developed in this paper. The underlying method incorporates findings from collaborative filtering and hybrid approaches to automated recommendation and is based on a model of personal attributes derived from research on team building and work psychology.

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., and König, W. (2003)
Towards an Interdisciplinary Theory of Networks
Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Naples, Italy

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Research problems in ICT networks often comprise coordination problems of information infrastructures and require state-of-the-art methods of coping with complex system dynamics. Especially, relevant economic network analysis is increasingly challenged to transcend "reductionist economic agendas" and incorporate findings from other disciplines. Recent trends of trying to bridge existing theoretical gaps in disciplinary research approaches by integrating the findings of other scientific disciplines reinforce the role of IS in establishing a sound theory of (social, economic) networks. Based upon efforts towards extending an economic view on networks, in this paper the paradigm of agent-based computational economics is proposed as a possible methodological path towards developing a unified perspective on network research.

Tesch, T., Fankhauser, P., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Skalierbare Verarbeitung von XML mit Infonyte-DB
Proceedings of the 10. GI-Fachtagung Datenbanksysteme für Business, Technologie und Web (BTW), Leipzig

Keim, T., Färber, F., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
Enhancing Partner Matching with Recommender Systems
Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Naples, Italy
(Research in Progress)

View Abstract
Collaboration is vital for the survival of companies in today's fast moving economy and, therefore, finding and matching partners is an important task. This is true for many different scenarios ranging from companies building consortiums over organizations frequently staffing project teams to the recruitment of new employees. An empirical survey among the Top 1000 companies in Germany on state-of-the-art recruitment practices shows that the Internet is already heavily used to attract and identify large sets of potential partners or applicants. However, the selection of the most suitable candidates from this pool by predicting the quality of the resulting partnership is only merely supported by information technology. Building on existing research in the fields of team building and information systems, we first outline the enhanced information requirements for online partner matching compared to partner information currently available on the Internet. Based on this, we then delineate how recommendation systems can assist in improving matching quality by incorporating relational information when bringing partners together online.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
An Individual View on Cooperation Networks
Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

View Abstract
Networks utilizing modern communication technologies can offer competitive advantages to those using them wisely (e.g. enterprises). Besides technical and organizational issues there are prob-lems concerning planning and operating networks due to an asymmetry of costs and benefits among the network agents making the development of internalization strategies difficult. Goal of this paper is to systematically identify the strategic decision situation of individual agents as a foundation for cooperation strategies aimed at exploiting network benefits. A systematic analysis of decision errors of agents in networks using computer-based simulations reveals principal solution scenarios and shows that network cooperation problems might frequently be not as difficult to resolve as often feared using comparatively simple strategies.

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2003)
The German Mobile Standards Battle
Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island (HI)

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The diffusion of innovations has long been a research domain in IS research. Yet, there is no sound theory nor practice to fully understand the complex mechanisms behind networks of users who are tied together by compatibility requirements as is frequently witnessed in information and communication networks. The goal of this paper is to identify key determinants of the technology battle between WAP and i-mode that is recently raging between German cellular service providers and to propose a possible diffusion path. By adapting an existing network model of technology diffusion, key influences are identified and incorporated into a computer-based simulation model. In doing so, trade-offs like better presentation quality on i-mode cellular clients vs. higher service costs compared to WAP applications can be modeled to propose a systematic sensitivity analysis of factors influencing the success of the respective mobile technologies and associated services. Not at least, the simulation model supports mobile services providers to customize their prices for a faster market penetration through regarding not only indirect (WAP, i-mode) but also direct network effects (SMS, i-mail) as crucial factors for adopters.

Fricke, M., Weitzel, T., König, W., and Lampe, R. (2002)
EDI and Business-to-Business Systems: The Status Quo and the Future of Business Relations in the European Automotive Industry
Proceedings of the 6th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Tokio, Japan

View Abstract
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) has been used in businesses for over 40 years to reduce the costs of document processing. In this paper, we analyze the use of EDI in the European automotive industry depending on company-size and region. Even though EDI is strongly used by the European manufactures and suppliers, our empirical results show a clear trend that future Internet-based solutions for exchanging business documents and to support collaborative supply-chain business scenarios will significantly exceed the current level of EDI.

Beck, R., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2002)
The Myth of WebEDI
Proceedings of the 2002 IFIP I3E Conference, Lisbon, Portugal

Beck, R., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2002)
Promises and pitfalls of SME integration
Proceedings of the 15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, e-Reality: Constructing the e-Economy, Bled, Slovenia

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The advent of Web technology and standards as XML had many hope for seamless business integration. Especially small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) were considered to finally participate in existing EDI networks. In this paper the authors show that there are principle obstacles to integrating SMEs that are often neglected and that require coordination designs substantially different from those often used.

Beck, R., König, W., and Weitzel, T. (2001)
IT Standards and Network Effects
Proceedings of the Academic Network in the Field of Standardisation, Brussels

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., and von Westarp, F. (2000)
A communication architecture for the digital economy - 21st century EDI
Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui (HI)

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., and Ladner, F. (2000)
The Extensible Markup Language - New opportunities in the area of EDI
Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Wien, Österreich

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., and von Westarp, F. (2000)
Reconsidering Network Effect Theory
Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Wien, Österreich (Best Paper Nomination)

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According to the network effect literature, network externalities lead to market failure due to Pareto-inferior coordination results. We show that the assumptions and simplifications implicitly used for modeling standardization processes fail to explain the real-world variety of diffusion courses in today's dynamic IT markets, and we derive requirements for a more general model of network effects. We argue that agent-based computational economics provides a solid basis for meeting these requirements by integrating evolutionary models from game theory and institutional economics. (also: SFB 403 Forschungsbericht (00-10))

von Westarp, F., Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., and König, W. (1999)
The Status Quo and the Future of EDI
Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Copenhagen, Denmark

Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., von Westarp, F., and König, W. (1999)
The Standardization Problem - An Economic Analysis of Standards in Information Systems
Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT), Aachen

Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., Kronenberg, R., and Ladner, F. (1998)
Erfolgsfaktor Standard: Internet-basierte Kooperationen mit WebEDI und XML/EDI
Proceedings of the 1998 Kooperationsnetze und Elektonische Koordination, Augsburg